American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture
ISSN (Print): 2328-398X ISSN (Online): 2328-3998 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohammad Arif Kamal
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2020, 8(2), 25-36
DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-8-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Influences of the Accessibility and Availability of Green Spaces on the Liveability of Residential Complexes in Erbil City

Maysa Ghazi Thanoon1 and Hamid Turki Haykal1,

1Department of Architecture, Salahadden University, Erbil, Kurdistam Region, Iraq

Pub. Date: March 25, 2020

Cite this paper:
Maysa Ghazi Thanoon and Hamid Turki Haykal. Influences of the Accessibility and Availability of Green Spaces on the Liveability of Residential Complexes in Erbil City. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2020; 8(2):25-36. doi: 10.12691/ajcea-8-2-1


Liveability refers to the quality of the urban environment in consideration of dwellers’ needs and expectations to increase the attractiveness of the urban environment and promote the overall quality of life. In the last couple of decades, the concept of liveability has been debated in urban studies. The Kurdistan-Iraq Region has witnessed the rise of new issues in terms of rapid urbanization and development. This study aims to assess the influences of the accessibility and availability of green spaces on a neighborhood’s liveability by combining a spatial analysis checklist and a questionnaire survey amongst residents to create an interrelated tool for comprehensively and reliably measuring liveability level. Consequently, ANOVA is used to explore the differences amongst respondents’ satisfaction with the characteristics of public open spaces that affect the liveability of the neighborhood. Moreover, a paired sample t-test is conducted to test the correspondence of measurement tools. Spatial analysis results indicate that inequalities exist between the cases in terms of the studied variables as they are present on the ground. This study also shows significant differences amongst respondents’ satisfaction with the two characteristics that affect the liveability of the neighborhood in the selected cases. Lastly, insignificant differences are found between objective and subjective evaluations, indicating a correspondence between the spatial analysis results of the accessibility and availability of green spaces and the satisfaction of residents.

Liveability Accessibility green spaces residents’ satisfaction

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Mousavi, S., “Livability in historic urban quarters case study: walled city of Famagusta”, MSc thesis, Eastern Mediterranean University. 2013.
[2]  Ahmed, N., El-Halafawy, A. and Amin, A., “A Critical Review of Urban Livability”, European Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(1). 165-182. 2019.
[3]  Giap, T., Thye, W. and Aw, G., “A new approach to measuring the liveability of cities: The Global Liveable Cities Index”, 11(2). 1-21. 2014.
[4]  Pandey, R., Garg, y., Bharat, A., “Understanding qualitative conceptions of livability”: an Indian perspective, ijret: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 02(12), eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308. 2013.
[5]  Lyndhurst, B., Livability & sustainable development: Bad habits & hard choices, Final Report for the UK Office of the Deputy Prime. 2004.
[6]  Kamp, I., Marsman, G., Leidelmeijer, K., and Hollander, A., “Urban Environmental Quality and Human Well-being”. Towards a conceptual framework and Demarcation of Concepts; a Literature Study. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65. 5-18. 2003.
[7]  Ley, A. and Newton, P. “Creating and sustaining liveable cities in Kallidaikurichi”, S. and Yuen, B. (Eds.): Developing Living Cities: From Analysis to Action, World Scientific, Singapore. 2010.
[8]  Cities PLUS, “A Sustainable Urban System”: The Long-term Plan for Greater Vancouver. Vancouver, Canada: cities PLUS. 2003.
[9]  Dadashpour, H., Azizi, D. and Asgharzade, P., “Evaluating the Livable Capacity of Urban Neighborhoods in Tehran”: A Case Study of Harandi, Takhti and Kosar Neighborhoods, Journal of Geography and Urban Space Development, 3 (2). 15-18. 2017.
[10]  Nagarajan, K., “The Code of Hammurabi: An Economic Interpretation”, International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(8). 108-116. 2011.
[11]  Capitanio, M., “The Relativity of Liveability Rankings Examining the Japanese Case against the Global Discourse”, World Journal of Social Science, 5(1). 12-18. 2018.
[12]  Howard, E. Garden cities of tomorrow, Swan Sonnenschein & Co., London. 1902.
[13]  Randhawa, A. and Kumar, A., “Exploring Livability as a dimension of Smart City Mission (India)”, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 4(11). 277-285. 2017.
[14]  Jacobs, J. The death and life of great American cities, Random House, Inc, New York. 1961.
[15]  Gehl, J., Life between buildings: Using public space (6th ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1987.
[16]  Appleyard, D., “Livable streets: protected neighborhoods?” Ann. Am. Acad. Pol. Soc. Sci. 451, 106-117. 1980.
[17]  Kaal, H. “A conceptual history of livability”, CITY: journal of urban policy and theory, 15(3). 532-547. 2011.
[18]  Mateos, A. and Kulasingam, T., “Conceptualization of liveability using Rambøll as a case”, report from MSc. Thesis in Sustainable Design. Aalborg University-Copenhagen. 2017.
[19]  Heylen, K., “Liveability in social housing: Three case-studies in Flanders”, in ENHR conference "Housing in an expanding Europe: theory, policy, participation and implementation",Urban planning institute of the Republic of Slovenia, 1-24. 2006.
[20]  Van Kamp, I., Leidelmeijer, K., Marsman, G. and de Hollander, A. “Urban environmental quality and human well-being towards a conceptual framework and demarcation of concepts”; a literature study. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65(1-2). 5-18. 2003.
[21]  Pacione, M. “Urban environment quality and human wellbeing-A social geographical perspective”. Landscape and Urban Planning, 65 (1-2). 19-30. 2003.
[22]  National Research Council. (2002). Community and Quality of Life: Data Needs for Informed Decision Making, Washington, DC: The National. Academies Press.
[23]  Uysal, M., Perdue, R. and Sirgy, M., In M. J. Sirgy (Ed.). Handbook of tourism and quality-of-life research: “enhancing the lives of tourists and residents of host communities”. USA: Springer. 2012.
[24]  Knox, P., & Pinch, S., Urban social geography, an introduction (6th ed.). England: Pearson. 2010.
[25]  Throsby, D., “Cultural heritage as financial asset in strategies for urban development and poverty alleviation”, International Conference for Integrating Urban Knowledge & Practice, MACQUAARIE university-Sydney-Australia, 2-14. 2005.
[26]  Massengale, L., Dover, V., “Street Design: The Secret to Great Cities and Towns”. Wiley, New York. 2013.
[27]  Momtaz, R. and Elsemary, Y., “Qualitative Conceptions of Livability between Theory and Applications in Egypt”, International Conference on IT, Architecture and Mechanical Engineering, Dubai (UAE), May 22-23. 2015.
[28]  Douglas, O., Russell,P., and Scott,M., “Positive perceptions of green and open space as predictors of neighbourhood quality of life: implications for urban planning across the city region”, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 2018.
[29]  Takahashi, K., Kudo, S., Tateishi, E., Furukawa, N., Nordqvist, J. and Allasiw, D., “Identifying Context-Specific Categories for Visualizing Livability of Cities—a Case Study of Malm¨o”, Journal of Challenges in Sustainability, 6(1). 52-64. 2018.
[30]  Keceli, A., “Effects of rapid urbanization on livability in Turkish cities: a case study of Denizli”, Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Oklahoma- graduate college USA. 2012.
[31]  AARP, Livable communities: An Evaluation Guide, public policy institute, Washington, USA. 2018.
[32]  The American Institute of Architects, “Livability 101: What Makes A Community Livable?” <Washington D.C.: The American Institute of Architects, accessed April 2019,>, pdf. 2005.
[33]  Lowe, M., Whitzman, C., Badland, H., Davern, M., Aye, L., Hes, D., Butterworth, I. and Corti, B., “Planning Healthy, Liveable and Sustainable Cities: How Can Indicators Inform Policy?”, 33(2) .131-144. 2015.
[34]  Paasch, S., ‘Livable dimensions of public spaces: A psychological analysis of health, well-being and social capital in urban squares’, Diploma thesis, university of technology, Dresden-Germany. 2015.
[35]  Whyte, W., “The Social Life of Small Urban Squares, Washington, DC: The Conservation Foundation. 1980.
[36]  Project for Public Spaces. “What makes a Successful Place?”, accessed January 5th, 2019, from Project of Public Spaces, <>. 2005.
[37]  Onnom, W., Tripathi, N., Nitivattananon, V. and Ninsawat, S., “Development of a Liveable City Index (LCI) Using Multi Criteria Geospatial Modelling for Medium Class Cities in Developing Countries”, Journal of Sustainability, 10, 520. 2018.
[38]  Lyanda, S., Ismail, O. and Fabunmi, F., “Evaluating Neighborhoods Livability in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Approach”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY, 5(1). 47-55. 2018.
[39]  Lukman, M., Ibrahim, S., Fauziah, R. and Aderemi, O., “Sustainable livable housing: A review of what traditional urban areas residents find important”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY (IJBES), 4(3. 190-198. 2017.
[40]  Park, Y., “Does new urbanist neighbourhood design affect neighbourhood turnover?”, Land Use Policy Journal, 68. 252-262. 2017.
[41]  Salleh, A., and Badarulzaman, N., “Quality of Life of Residents in Urban Neighbourhoods of Pulau Pinang, Malaysia”, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 17(2). 117-123. 2012.
[42]  LI, Y., “Neighborhood Amenities, Satisfaction, and Perceived Livability of Foreign-Born and Native-Born U.S. Residents”, Journal of Identity and Migration Studies (JIMS), 6(1). 1-23. 2012.
[43]  Leby, J. and Hashim, A., “Liveability Dimensions and Attributes: Their Relative Importance in the Eyes of Neighbourhood Residents”, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 15(10). 67-91. 2010.
[44]  Irma, N., Arief, S., Krisn, I. and Belinda, S., “The relationship between system arrangement of public open space and livability based on user perception in puputan badung square Denpasar”, Fourth International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (icsbe), 449-458. 2016.
[45]  Kelege, M., Salheen, M. and Latif, M., “Livable Public Spaces as a Means for Livable Cities”, Proceedings of the 11th Ecocity World Summit, Abu Dhabi - U.A.E. 1-15.
[46]  Baig, F., Rana, I., and Talpur, M., “Determining Factors Influencing Residents” Satisfaction Regarding Urban Livability in Pakistan’, International Journal of Community Well-Being, 2 (2). 91-110. 2019.
[47]  Saitluanga, B., “Spatial Pattern of Urban Livability in Himalayan Region: A Case of Aizawl City, India”, an International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, 117(2). 541-559. 2014.
[48]  Urban Housing Standards Manual, Republic of Iraq, Ministry of Construction & Housing, State Commission of Housing-Studies Suction. 2010.
[49]  UN Habitat, Habitat III issue papers 11 - Public Space, New York.2015.
[50]  Ibrahim, M., & Chung, W., “Quality of life of residents living near industrial estates in Singapore”, Social Indicators Research, 61(2). 203-225. 2003.