American Journal of Biomedical Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-3947 ISSN (Online): 2328-3955 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajbr Editor-in-chief: Hari K. Koul
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016, 4(4), 94-98
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Samples at Kampala International University-teaching Hospital, Bushenyi District, Uganda

Janet Nalwoga1, Michael Tirwomwe2, Albert Nyanchoka Onchweri1, Josephat Nyabayo Maniga3, Cyprian Mose Nyaribo4 and Conrad Ondieki Miruka2,

1School of Pharmacy, Kampala International University-Western Campus. P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

2Department of Biochemistry, Kampala International University-Western Campus. P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

3Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Kampala International University-Western Campus. P.O BOX 71, Bushenyi, Uganda

4School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, United States International University – Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

Pub. Date: December 09, 2016

Cite this paper:
Janet Nalwoga, Michael Tirwomwe, Albert Nyanchoka Onchweri, Josephat Nyabayo Maniga, Cyprian Mose Nyaribo and Conrad Ondieki Miruka. Drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical Samples at Kampala International University-teaching Hospital, Bushenyi District, Uganda. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2016; 4(4):94-98. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-4-4-3

Abstract

Background: Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to methicillin is an important nosocomial pathogen that often causes infections that are hard to treat. This is due to the fact that the pathogen is usually resistant to other commonly used antibiotics. The presence of drug resistant MRSA among patients has previously been documented in various parts of Uganda. However no reports have been documented for Kampala International University-Teaching hospital in western Uganda. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of MRSA strains in the patients hospitalized in the surgical ward. Methods: Wound swabs were collected from both male and female patients hospitalized in the surgical ward. Samples were then cultured in suitable media. The Staphylococcus aureus colonies that were obtained were tested for resistance to oxacillin to determine the strains that were MRSA. Further antibiotic resistance of the MRSA isolates was determined by the disc diffusion method using various antibiotics. Results: Out of the one hundred and fourteen isolates from the clinical samples, only seventy five isolates were clearly identified as S. aureus with 85.3% coagulase positive and 13.3% coagulase negative. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus was prevalent at a rate of 56.1%. among the MRSA isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed to be the highest while resistance to ceftriaxone was observed to be the least. Conclusion: The high prevalence of MRSA amongst the surgical ward patients requires proper measures to be taken to prevent further spread of the pathogen. It is recommended that the source of this drug resistant strains of MRSA be determined so as to design appropriate interventions to prevent the future emergence of infections that are hard to treat.

Keywords:
surgical site infections methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical ward Uganda drug resistance

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Appelbaum PC. “MRSA—the tip of the iceberg”. Clin Microbiol Infect. 12(Suppl 2): 3-10. 2006.
 
[2]  Brown DF, Edwards DI, Hawkey PM, et al, on behalf of the Joint Working Party of the British Society for Antimicrobial Therapy, Hospital Infection Society, Infection Control Nurses Association. “Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis and susceptibility testing of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)”. J Antimicrob Chemother 56: 1000-18. 2005.
 
[3]  Francis JS, Doherty MC, Lopatin U, Johnston CP, Sinha G, Ross T et al. “Severe community-onset pneumonia in healthy adults caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes”. Clin Infect Dis. 40: 100-7. 2005.
 
[4]  Healy CM, Hulten KG, Palazzi DL, Campbell JR, Baker CJ. “Emergence of new strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal intensive care unit”. Clin Infect Dis. 39: 1460-6. 2004
 
[5]  Saxen S, Singh K. and Talwar V. “Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in Community in East Delhi area”. Jpn J Infect Dis. 56: 54-56. 2003
 
[6]  Ojulong J, Mwambu TP, Joloba M, Bwanga F, Kaddu-Mulindwa DH. “Relative prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its susceptibility pattern in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda”. Tanzan J Health Res 11: 149-153. 2009
 
[7]  Moremi N, Mshana SE, Kamugisha E, Kataraihya J, Tappe D, et al. “Predominance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus -ST88 and new ST1797 causing wound infection and abscesses”. J Infect Dev Ctries 6: 620-625. 2012.
 
[8]  Ojikan-Odeke. M.Med. dissertation on “Hand infections in Uganda”. 19-40. 1978.
 
[9]  Mugisa D.B. M. Med Surgery dissertation on “Complications following laparotomy in Mulago Hospital”. 59-156. 1988.
 
[10]  Olaro .C. M.Med Surgery dissertation on “Study to assess risk factors for Postoperative Complication following abdominal Surgery in Mulago hospital”. 1-3. 1999.
 
[11]  Kitara LD, Anywar AD, Acullu D, Odongo-Aginya E, Aloyo J, Fendu M. “Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in suppurative lesions in Lacor Hospital, Uganda”. African Health Sciences. 11 (S1): S34 - S39. 2011.
 
[12]  Shanson DC. “Antibiotic Resistant Staph aureus”. J Hospit infect. 2:11-16. 1981.
 
[13]  Boyce JM. “Increasing prevalence of MRSA in the USA”. J Infect Control and Hospital Epidemiol. 11:639-642. 1990.
 
[14]  Kateete D, Kimani C, Katabazi F, Okeng A, Okee M, Nanteza A, Joloba M, Najjuka F. “Identification of Staphylococcus aureus: DNase and Mannitol salt agar improve the efficiency of the tube coagulase test”. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 9(1):23. 2010.
 
[15]  Bull AL, Worth LJ, Richards MJ. “Impact of Vancomycin Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis on the Development of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Surgical Site Infections: Report From Australian Surveillance Data (VICNISS)”. Annals of surgery. 256 (6): 1089-1092. 2012.
 
[16]  Kateete DP, Namazzi S, Okee M, Okeng A, Baluku H, Musisi NL, et al. “High prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the surgical units of Mulago hospital in Kampala, Uganda”. BMC Research Notes. 4: 326. 2011.
 
[17]  J Ojulong, T Mwambu, M Jolobo, E Agwu, F Bwanga, C Najjuka, D Kaddu-Mulindwa. “Prevalence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among isolates from surgical site infections in Mulago hospital- Kampala, Uganda”. The Internet Journal of Infectious Diseases. Volume 7 Number 2. 2008.
 
[18]  Jean-Marie Liesse Iyamba, José Mulwahali Wambale, Cyprien Mbundu Lukukula, Ntondo za Balega Takaisi-Kikuni. “High prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains isolated from surgical site infections in Kinshasa”. Pan African Medical Journal. 18: 322. 2014.
 
[19]  Bashir Mwambi, Jacob Iramiot, Freddie Bwanga, Marthae Nakaye, Herbert Itabangi and Joel Bazira. “Clindamycin Resistance among Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, in South Western Uganda”. British Microbiology Research Journal 4(12): 1335-1344. 2014.
 
[20]  Jeremiah Seni, Christine F Najjuka, David P Kateete, Patson Makobore, Moses L Joloba, Henry Kajumbula, et al. “Antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized surgical patients: a silently emerging public health concern in Uganda”. BMC Research Notes 6:298. 2013.
 
[21]  Najat Buzaid, Abdel-Naser Elzouki, Ibrahim Taher, Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh. “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a tertiary surgical and trauma hospital in Benghazi, Libya”. J Infect Dev Ctries. 5(10): 723-726. 2011.
 
[22]  Ching Jou Lim, Allen C. Cheng, Jacqueline Kennon, Denis Spelman, Dayna Hale, Gabrielle Melican et al. “Prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms and risk factors for carriage in long-term care facilities: a nested case–control study”. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014.
 
[23]  Meng Xiao, He Wang, Ying Zhao, Lei-Li Mao, Mitchell Brown, Yun-Song Yu et al. “National Surveillance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in China Highlights a Still-Evolving Epidemiology with 15 Novel Emerging Multilocus Sequence Types”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 51 (11): 3638-3644. 2013.
 
[24]  Alain C. Juayang, Gemma B. de los Reyes,April Joy G. de la Rama, Christine T. Gallega. “Antibiotic Resistance Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens in a Tertiary Hospital from 2010 to 2012”. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 898457: 4. 2014.
 
[25]  Obianuju Onelum, Babatunde Odetoyin, Anthony Onipede and Adesola Oyelese. “The Role of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Clinical infections in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria”. Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation. 2(2): 00041. 2015.
 
[26]  Rita Khanal, Prakash Sah, Pramila Lamichhane, Apsana Lamsal, Sweety Upadhaya and Vijay Kumar Pahwa. “Nasal carriage of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care workers at a tertiary care hospital in Western Nepal”. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control. 4:39. 2015.
 
[27]  Cosgrove SE, Qi Y, Kaye KS, Harbarth S, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y. “The impact of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia on patient outcomes: mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges”. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 26: 166-74. 2005.
 
[28]  Gastmeier P, Schwab F, Sohr D, Behnke M, Geffers C. “Reproducibility of the surveillance effect to decrease nosocomial infection rates”. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 30: 993-9. 2009.
 
[29]  G. Sganga, C. Tascini, E. Sozio, M. Carlini, P. Chirletti, F. Cortese et al. “Focus on the prophylaxis, epidemiology and therapy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infections and a position paper on associated risk factors: the perspective of an Italian group of surgeons”. World Journal of Emergency Surgery 11: 26. 2016.
 
[30]  Rubin RJ, Harrington CA, Poon A, Dietrich K, Greene JA, Moiduddin A. “The economic impact of Staphylococcus aureus infection in New York City hospitals”. Emerg Infect Dis. 5: 9-17. 1999.
 
[31]  Pandya N, Chaudhary A, Mehta S, Parmar R. “Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from various clinical samples at Tertiary care hospital of rural Gujarat”. J Res Med Den Sci. 2(3): 49-53. 2014.