American Journal of Biomedical Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-3947 ISSN (Online): 2328-3955 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajbr Editor-in-chief: Hari K. Koul
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014, 2(1), 11-15
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virue Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

A.J Esan1, , C.T. Omisakin1, T. Ojo-Bola2, M.F Owoseni1, K.A Fasakin1 and A.A Ogunleye3

1Hematology Department, Federal medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

2Medical Microbiology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

3Ondo State General Hospital, Okitipupa, Nigeria

Pub. Date: February 09, 2014

Cite this paper:
A.J Esan, C.T. Omisakin, T. Ojo-Bola, M.F Owoseni, K.A Fasakin and A.A Ogunleye. Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virue Co-Infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2014; 2(1):11-15. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-2-1-3

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine sero-prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus co-infection among pregnant women. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications; infections with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) are public health problems. Worldwide, there are about 350 million HBV carriers and 130 to 170 million people infected with HCV. The presence of HBV and HCV was determined using third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA), reactive samples were further confirmed using enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) (Bio-Rad, France). Age group 26-30 and 31-35 had highest frequency of 240 (36.98%) and 206 (31.74%) respectively in HBV and HCV. Sero prevalence of HBV and HCV were 44 (6.78%) and 9 (1.39%) respectively. Prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection was 1 (0.15%) in age group 31-35. Proper management of maternal hepatitis during the prenatal phase ensures better outcomes in the infant, therefore screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B and C virus are necessary in order to identify those neonates at risk of transmission.

Keywords:
Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virus transmission

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Abildgaard N, Peterslund NA (1991). Hepatitis C virus transmitted by tattooing needle. Lancet; 338: 460.
 
[2]  Agarry OO, Zamani GL. Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C in antenatal patients in Gwagwalada-Abuja, Nigeria.
 
[3]  Akbar N, Basuki B, Mulyanto, Garabrant DH, Sulaiman A, Noer HM (1997). Ethnicity, Socioeconomic status, transfusions and risk of hepatitis B and C infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 12: 752-757.
 
[4]  Ahmedin J, Taylor M, Ram CT, et al., 2004 A New Section in Cancer Offering Timely and Targeted information, Can J Clin.; 54: 23-25.
 
[5]  Alikor EA and Erhabor ON (2007). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in children in a tertiary health institution in the Niger delta of Nigeria. Niger J Med.; 16: 250-251.
 
[6]  Al Awaidy S, Abu-Elyazeed R, Al Hosani H, et al., 2006 Sero-epidemilogy of hepatitis B Infection in pregnant women in Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. J infect; 52 (3): 202-206.
 
[7]  Al-Shamahy HA (2000). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and risk factors of HBV infection in a sample of healthy mothers and their infants in Sana’a, Yemen. Ann Saudi Med; 20: 464-467.
 
[8]  Awole M, Gebre-Selassie S (2005). Seroprevalence of HBsAg and its risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev; 19 (1): 45-50.
 
[9]  Azhar T, Khan IA, Mohsein S, Usman J (2012). Antenatal screening for hepatitis B and C virus infection in pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital of Rawalpindi. Available on line at: http://www.pafmj.org, 2011.
 
[10]  Batayneh N, Bdour S (2002). Risk of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus in Jordan. Infect Dis Obster Gynaecol; 10: 127-132.
 
[11]  Batool A, Bano KA, Khan MU, Hussain R (2008). Antenatal screening of women for Hepatitis B and C in an outpatient department. J Dow Univers Health Sci.; 2: 32-35.
 
[12]  Bertolini DA, Pinho JRR, Saraceni CP, et al., 2006 Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women from Parana state, Brazil. Braz J Med Bio Res; 39 (8): 1083-1090.
 
[13]  Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lee GC, Lan CC, Roan CH, Huang FY (1983). Prevention of perinatally transmitted hepatitis B virus infections with hepatitis B immune globulin and hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet; 2: 1099-1102.
 
[14]  Berkley EMF, Leslie KK, Arora S, Qualls C, Dunkelberg JC (2008). Chronic Hepatitis C in Pregnancy. Obstet. Gynecol. 112: 304-310.
 
[15]  Buseri FI, Seiyabo E, Jeremiah ZA (2010). Surveying infections among pregnant women in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. J. Global Infect Dis.; 2: 203-211.
 
[16]  Bwogi J, Braka F, Makumbi I, Mishra V, Bakamutumaho B, Nanyunja M, Opio A, Downing R, Biryahwaho B, Lewis RF (2009). Hepatitis B infection is highly endemic in Uganda: findings from a national serosurvey. Afr Health Sci.; 9: 98-108.
 
[17]  Chang MH (2000). Natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in children. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 15: 16-19.
 
[18]  Clegg T (1991). Hepatitis B surface and e antigen seropostivity in mothers and cord blood at Port Moresby General Hospital: Implication for a control program. Papua New Guinea Med J; 34: 234-237.
 
[19]  Dawaki SS, Kawo AH (2006). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women attending an urban maternity hospital in Kano, Nigeria. Nig J Microbial.; 20: 705-709.
 
[20]  Damale NKR, Lassey AT, Bekoe V (2005). Hepatitis B virus seroprevalence among paturients in Accra, Ghana. Inter J Gynecol and Obstet; 90: 240-241.
 
[21]  Dienstag JL (1983). Non-A, non-B hepatitis I. Recognition, epidemiology, and clinical features. Gastroenterol. 85: 439-462.
 
[22]  Duru MU, Aluyi HAS, Anukam KC (2009). Rapid screening for co-infection of HIV and HCV In pregnant women in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci.; 9: 137-142.
 
[23]  Eke AC, Eke UA, Okafor CI, Ezebialu IU, Ogbuagu A (2011). Prevalence, correlates and pattern of hepatitis B surface antigen in a low resource setting. Virol J; 8: 12.
 
[24]  Elsheikh R, Daak A, Elsheikh M, Karsany M, Adam I (2007). Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in pregnant Sudanese women. Virol. J. 4 (1): 104.
 
[25]  El-Magrahe H, Furarah AR, El-Figih K, El-Urshfany S, Ghenghesh KS (2010). Maternal and neonatal seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in Tripoli, Libya. J Infect Dev Ctries; 4: 168-170.
 
[26]  Euler GL, Wooten KG, Baughman AL, et al., 2003. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence among pregnant women in urban areas: implications for testing, reporting, and preventing perinatal transmission. Pediatrics; 111 (5 part 2): 1192-1197.
 
[27]  Ezegbudo CN, Agbonlahor DE, Nwobu GO, Igwe CU, Agba MI, Okpala HO, Ikaraoha CI (2004). The seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and Human Immunodeficiency Virus among pregnant women in Anambra state, Nigeria. Shiraz E-medical Journal; 5: 1-25.
 
[28]  Goldstein ST, Zhou F, Hadler SC, Bell BP, Mast EE, Margolis HS (2005). A mathematical model to estimate global hepatitis B disease burden and vaccination impact. Int. J. Epidemiol. 34: 1329-1339.
 
[29]  Gray Davis L, Weber DJ, Lemon SM (1989). Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus. Lancet; 1: 889-893.
 
[30]  Habiba SA, Memon MA (2007). Prevalence of Hepatitis B infection in pregnant women in a tertiary care hospital. Infectious Disease Journal of Pakistan; 35-38.
 
[31]  Haider Z, Khan AA, Rehman K, Janjua MI, Iqbal J, Chishti MA, et al., 1994 Sero-diagnosis of Viral hepatitis in 93 patients admitted with acute hepatitis in three different teaching hospitals in Lahore. J Pak Med Assoc; 44: 182-4.
 
[32]  Kang HS, Song BC, Ji CX, et al., 2004 Serologic markers of hepatitis B virus in pregnant women in Jeju island. Korean J Hepatol; 10 (3): 191-196.
 
[33]  Khattak ST, Ali Marwat M, Khattak ID, Khan TM, Naheed T (2009). Comparison of frequency of hepatitis b and hepatitis c in pregnant women in urban and rural area of district Swat. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 21: 12-15.
 
[34]  Khalil MKM, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Jeffri M, Al-Ghamdi YS, Mishkhas A, Bakhsh M, Eisa M, Nageeb M, Tumash S (2005). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant Saudi women. Eastern Mediterran Health J; 11: 640-647.
 
[35]  Kumar A, Sharma KA, Gupta RK, Kar P, Chakravarti A (2007). Prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis C virus among pregnant women. Ind. J. Med. Res. 126: 211-215.
 
[36]  Kramvis A, Kew M (2007). Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus in Africa, its genotypes and clinical associations of genotypes Hepatol. Res. 37 (Supplement 1): 9-19.
 
[37]  Kwan LC, Cho Y, Lee SS (1997). The declining HBsAg carriage rate in pregnant women in Hong Kong. Epidemiol Infect; 119 (2): 281-283.
 
[38]  Kuru U, Turan O, Kuru N, et al., 1996 Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant Turkish women and their families. Eur Clinical Microbiol Iinfect Dis; 15 (3): 248-251.
 
[39]  Levy M, Koren G (1991). Hepatitis B vaccine in pregnancy: Maternal and fetal safety. Am J Perinatol; 8: 227-232.
 
[40]  Lin HH, Kao JH, Chang TC, et al., 2003. Secular trend of age specific prevalence of hepatitis B Surface and e antigenemia in pregnant in Taiwan. J Med Virol; 69 (4):66-470.
 
[41]  Luby SP, Qamruddin K, Shah AA, Omair A, Pahsa O, Khan AJ, et al, 1997. The relationship between therapeutic injections and high prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan. Epidemiol Infect; 119: 349-356.
 
[42]  Luka SA, Ibrahim MB, Iliya S (2008). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria. Nig. J. Parasitology.
 
[43]  Madhava V, Burgess C, Drucker E (2002). Epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Lancet. Infect. Dis. 2: 293-302.
 
[44]  Mbaawuga EM, Enenebeaku MNO, Okopi JA, Damen JG (2008). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women in Markudi, Nigeria. Af J Biomed R; 11: 155-159.
 
[45]  Mbamara SU, Obiechina N (2010). Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among antenatal clinic attendees in a private specialist hospital in Onitsha, Southeast Nigeria. Niger Med J; 51: 152-154.
 
[46]  McMahon BJ, Alward WLM, Hall DB, Heyward WL, Bender TR, Francis DP, Maynard JE (1985). Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection: Relation of Age to the Clinical Expression of Disease and Subsequent Development of the Carrier State. J. Infect. Dis. 151 (4): 599-603.
 
[47]  Melbye M, Biggar RJ, Wantzin P, Krogsgaard K, Ebbesen P, Becker NG (1990). Sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus: cohort study (1981-9) among European homosexual men. BMJ. 301 (6745): 210-212.
 
[48]  Mishra L, Seeff LB (1992). Viral hepatitis, A though E, complicating pregnancy. Gastroenterol. Clin. North Am. 21 (4): 873-887.
 
[49]  Mortada EL-Shabrawi, Mohamed Farouk Mohamed, Mona Salah El Din Hamdi, Mohamed Ehab, Shaimaa Shaaban Khamiss and Hanaa El-Karaksy (2013). Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Egyptian Pregnant Women-A Single Center Study; International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health 3 (2): 157-168.
 
[50]  Mujeeb SA. Seroprevalence and pattern of viral hepatitis in Pakistan. Infect Dis J 1998; 5: 20-21.
 
[51]  Munoz.PS, Robert. S, Sheffiedld. J et al 6.3% Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in pregnant women who are infected with HIV. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol 2005; 193, (3) Supplement 1, September: 1270-3.
 
[52]  National Institute of Health (2002). Management of Hepatitis C. NIH Consensus Development Program: 19: 1-35.
 
[53]  Ndako JA, Nwankiti OO, Echeonwu GON, Junaid SA, Anaele O, Anthony TJ (2011). Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Secondary School Students in North-central, Nigeria. Sierra Leone J. Biomedical Res. 3 (3): 163-168.
 
[54]  Ndong-Atome GR, Makuwa M, Njouom R, Branger M, Brun-Vezinet F, Mahe A, Rousset D, Kazanji M (2008). Hepatitis C virus prevalence and genetic diversity among pregnant women in Gabon, central Africa. BMC Infect. Dis. 8 (1): 82.
 
[55]  Obi SN, Onah HE, Ezugwu FO (2006). Risk factors for hepatitis B infection during pregnancy in a Nigerian Obstetric population. J Obstet Gynaecol; 26 (8): 770-772.
 
[56]  Odusanya OO, Alufohai FE, Meurice FP, Wellens R, Weil J, Ahonkhai VI (2005). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in vaccinated children and controls in rural Nigeria. International J Infect Dis; 9: 139-143.
 
[57]  Oliveira ML, Bastes FI, Telles PR, Yoshida CF, Schatzmayr HG, Paetzold U, et al., 1999 Prevalence and risk factors for HBV, HCV and HDV infections among injecting drug users. Braz J Med Biot Res; 32: 1107-1114.
 
[58]  Olokoba AB, Salawu FK, Danburam A, Desalu OO, Olokoba LB, Wahab KW, Badung LH, Tidi SK, Midala J, Aderibigbe S, Abdulrahman MB, Babalola OM, Abdukkarim A (2009). Viral Hepatities in Voluntary Blood Donors in Yola, Nigeria. Euro. J. Scientific Res. 31 (3): 329-334.
 
[59]  Ojule AC, Akani CI, Opurum HC, et al., 2005 Seroprevaence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J; 12 (4): 266-270.
 
[60]  Oshitani H, Kasoslo C, Tembo M, et al., 1995. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Zambia. East Afri Med J; 72 (12): 813-815.
 
[61]  Roy KM, Goldberg D, Taylor A, Mills P (2003). Investigating the source of hepatitis C virus Infection among individuals whose route of infection is undefined: a study of ten cases. Scand J Infect Dis; 35: 326-328.
 
[62]  Sandesh K, Varghese T, Harikumar R, et al., 2006. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the normal population and high-risk groups in north Kerala. Trop Gastroenterol; 27 (2): 80-83.
 
[63]  Sellati M P, Inwoley, A claix Ml et al 2003. Prevalence of Hepatitis B/C virus and HCV genotypes in HIV positive and negative women in Abidjan, Ivory coast West Africa, 8 (1): 974.
 
[64]  Sidibe S, Sacko BY and Traore I (2001). Prevalence of serologic markers of the Hepatitis B virus In pregnant women of Bamako, Mali. Bull Soc Pathol Exot; 94 (4): 339-341.
 
[65]  Strickland GT (2002). HCV in developing countries. Postgrad Doc (Africa); 24: 18-20.
 
[66]  Taseer IU, Ishaq F, Hussain L, Safdar S, Mirbahar AM, Faiz SA (2010). Frequency of anti-HCV, HBsAg and related risk factors in pregnant women at Nishtar Hospital, Multan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 22: 13-16.
 
[67]  Tassopoulos NC, Papaevangelou GJ, Sjogren MH, Roumeliotou-Karayannis A, Gerin JL, Purcell RH (1987). Natural history of acute hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatitis in Greek adults. Gastroenterol. 92 (6): 1844-1850.
 
[68]  Tran TT (2009). Understanding cultural barriers in hepatitis B virus infection. Cleveland Clin. J. Med. 76 (Suppl 3): 10-13.
 
[69]  Tsega E, Tsega M, Mengesha B, et al., 1988 Transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in Ethiopia with emphasis on the importance of vertical transmission. Int J Epidemiol; 17 (4): 874-879.
 
[70]  Ugbebor O, Aigbirior M, Osazuwa F, Enabudoso E, Zabayo O (2011). The prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral infections among pregnant women. North Am. J. Med. Sci. 3 (5): 238-241.
 
[71]  Ugwuja EI, Ugwu NC (2010). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Liver Function Tests among Adolescents in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria. The Internet J. Trop. Med. 6 (2): 1-6.
 
[72]  Vazquez-Martinez JL, Coreno-Juarez MO, Montano-Estrada LF, et al., 2003 Seroporevalence of hepatitis in pregnant women in Mexico, Salud publica Mex; 45 (3): 165-170.
 
[73]  Wejstal R, Widell A, Mansson A, Hermodsson S, Norkrans G (1992). Mother-to Infant Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus. Ann. Internal Med. 117 (11): 887-890.
 
[74]  World Health Organization. (2011). Factsheet No 164.
 
[75]  WHO/EPI (1990). Protocol for assessing prevalence of hepatitis B infection in antenatal patients. WHO/EPI/GEN/90.6 1990.
 
[76]  World Health Organization (1999). Global surveillance and control of hepatitis C. Report of a WHO Consultation organized in collaboration with the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board. JVH; 6: 35-47.
 
[77]  Zanetti AR, Tanzi E, Newell ML (1999). Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus.J.Hepatol. 31: 96-100.