American Journal of Biomedical Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-3947 ISSN (Online): 2328-3955 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajbr Editor-in-chief: Hari K. Koul
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2020, 8(1), 15-18
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-8-1-3
Open AccessReview Article

Corona Virus, Precaution and Some Treatments

Ravi Kumar1, Chhater Singh2, , Alimuddin Saifi3, Sanjeev Kumar2 and Bijander Kumar2

1BIT Meerut, U.P. India

2Mahaveer college of Pharmacy Meerut, U.P. India

3Katayayani College of Education, Meerut, U.P. India

Pub. Date: March 17, 2020

Cite this paper:
Ravi Kumar, Chhater Singh, Alimuddin Saifi, Sanjeev Kumar and Bijander Kumar. Corona Virus, Precaution and Some Treatments. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2020; 8(1):15-18. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-8-1-3

Abstract

More than 1,100 people have died after an outbreak of coronovirus in the central Chinese city of Wuhan, after that World Health Organisation has declared a global health emergency in World. The Corona Virus is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. It causes a variety of diseases in mammals and birds but, in the last few decades, has shown to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and, more recently, Middle-East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has demonstrated the lethality of CoVs when they cross the species barrier and infect humans. News reports of patients with an unknown pneumonia were first identified on 31st December with the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. On 1st January 2020, the seafood market was closed and decontaminated while countries with travel links to Wuhan went on high alert for potential travelers with unexplained respiratory disease.

Keywords:
corona virus Coronaviridae pneumonia SARS-CoV

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  C.Drosten, S. Gunther, W. Preiser, S. van der Werf, H. R. Brodt, S. Becker, H. Rabenau, M. Panning, L. Kolesnikova, R. A. Fouchier, A. Berger, A. M. Burguiere, J. Cinatl, M. Eickmann, N. Escriou, K. Grywna, S. Kramme, J. C. Manuguerra, S. Muller, V. Rickerts, M. Sturmer, S. Vieth, H. D. Klenk, A. D. Osterhaus, H. Schmitz, and H. W. Doerr. 2003. Identification of a novel coronavirus in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 1967-1976.
 
[2]  T. G. Ksiazek, D. Erdman, C. S. Goldsmith, S. R. Zaki, T. Peret, S. Emery, S. Tong, C. Urbani, J. A. Comer, W. Lim, P. E. Rollin, S. F. Dowell, A. E. Ling, C. D. Humphrey, W. J. Shieh, J. Guarner, C. D. Paddock, P. Rota, B. Fields, J. DeRisi, J. Y. Yang, N. Cox, J. M. Hughes, J. W. LeDuc, W. J. Bellini, and L. J. Anderson. 2003. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 348: 1953-1966.
 
[3]  L. Sarparast, M. J. Saffar . Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: A Review, J Pediatr Rev. 2015 January; 3(1):130.
 
[4]  D. Schoeman, B. C. Fielding. Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge. Schoeman and Fielding Virology Journal, (2019) 16: 69.
 
[5]  K.Mc. Imtosh, JA Englund. Coronoviruses and toronirises including sever acute respiratory syndrome feing, cherry, Dommler, Harisson, Feigim-cherry textbook of pediatric infectious disease. 7th edPhiladelphia : Saunders/Elsevier.
 
[6]  U. Pradesh, PDD. Upadhayay, PC. Vigyan. Coronavirus infection in equines: A review. Asian J Anim Vet Adv. 2014; 9(3): 164-76.
 
[7]  T. T. Tok, G. Tatar, Structures and Functions of Coronavirus Proteins: Molecular Modeling of Viral Nucleoprotein. Int J Virol Infect Dis. 2017; 2(1): 001-008.
 
[8]  Health Protection Agency UCIT. Evidence of person-to-person transmission within a family cluster of novel coronavirus infections, J Pediatr Rev. 2015;3(1):1304.
 
[9]  C. C. Vincent Cheng, K. P. Lau Susanna, C. Y. Patrick Woo, and Kwok Yung Yuen. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus as an Agent of Emerging and Reemerging Infection. CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, Oct. 2007, p. 660-694.
 
[10]  E Arbely, Z. Khattari, G. Brotons, M. Akkawi, T. Salditt, I.T. Arkin. A highly unusual palindromic transmembrane helical hairpin formed by SARS coronavirus E protein. J Mol Biol. 2004; 341(3): 769-79.
 
[11]  F. Li, W. Li, M. Farzan, S.C. Harrison. "Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor" . Science. Sep-2015; 309 (5742):1864-1868.
 
[12]  Y. Li, W. Surya, S. Claudine, J. Torres. Structure of a conserved Golgi complextargeting signal in coronavirus envelope proteins. J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(18): 12535-49.
 
[13]  J. Torres, U Maheswari, K. Parthasarathy, Ng L, Liu DX, X. Gong. Conductance and amantadine binding of a pore formed by a lysine-flanked transmembrane domain of SARS coronavirus envelope protein. Protein Sci. 2007; 16(9): 2065-71.
 
[14]  Rota, P. A., M. S. Oberste, S. S. Monroe, W. A. Nix, R. Campagnoli, J. P. Icenogle, S. Penaranda, B. Bankamp, K. Maher, M. H. Chen, S. Tong, A. Tamin, L. Lowe, M. Frace, J. L. DeRisi, Q. Chen, D. Wang, D. D. Erdman, T. C. Peret, C. Burns, T. G. Ksiazek, P. E. Rollin, A. Sanchez, S. Liffick, B. Holloway, J. Limor, K. McCaustland, M. Olsen-Rasmussen, R. Fouchier, S. Gunther, A. D. Osterhaus, C. Drosten, M. A. Pallansch, L. J. Anderson, Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. guesthttp://cmr.asm.org/ February 8, 2020. Science 300: 1394-1399.
 
[15]  Z. Fan, K. Peng, X. Tan, B. Yin, X. Dong, F. Qiu, Y. Shen, H. Wang, J. Yuan, B. Qiang, and X. Peng.. Molecular cloning, expression, and purification of SARS-CoV. Protein Expr. 2005; 41:235-240.
 
[16]  J.S. Joseph, K.S. Saikatendu, V. Subramanian, B.W. Neuman, A. Brooun, M. Griffith, K. Moy, M. K. Yadav, J. Velasquez, M. J. Buchmeier, R. C. Stevens, and P. Kuhn. Crystal structure of nonstructural protein 10 from these vere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus reveals a novel fold with two zinc-binding motifs. J. Virol. 2006; 80:7894–7901.
 
[17]  E. Minskaia, T. Hertzig, A. E. Gorbalenya, V. Campanacci, C. Cambillau, B. Canard, and J. Ziebuhr.. Discovery of an RNA virus exoribonuclease that is critically involved in coronavirus RNA synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006; 103: 5108-5113.
 
[18]  R. Anthony. Fehr and P.Stanley , Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis. HHS Public Access, Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1282: 1-23.
 
[19]  B. Delmas, H. Laude. Assembly of coronavirus spike protein into trimers and its role in epitope expression. Journal of virology. 1990; 64(11): 5367-5375.
 
[20]  A.R. Collins, R.L. Knobler, H. Powell, M.J. Buchmeier. Monoclonal antibodies to murine hepatitis virus-4 (strain JHM) define the viral glycoprotein responsible for attachment and cell-cell fusion. Virology. 1982; 119(2): 358-371.
 
[21]  Nal B, Chan C, Kien F, Siu L, Tse J, Chu K, Kam J, Staropoli I, Crescenzo-Chaigne B, Escriou N, van der Werf S, Yuen KY, Altmeyer R. Differential maturation and subcellular localization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus surface proteins S, M and E. The Journal of general virology. 2005; 86(5): 1423-1434.
 
[22]  ML. DeDiego, E. Alvarez, F. Almazan, MT. Rejas, E. Lamirande, A. Roberts, WJ. Shieh, SR. Zaki, K. Subbarao, L. Enjuanes. A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus that lacks the E gene is attenuated in vitro and in vivo. Journal of virology. 2007; 81(4): 1701-1713.
 
[23]  JL. Nieto-Torres, ML. Dediego, C. Verdia-Baguena, JM. Jimenez-Guardeno, JA Regla-Nava, R. Fernandez-Delgado, C. Castano-Rodriguez, Alcaraz A, Torres J, Aguilella VM, Enjuanes L. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis. PLoS pathogens. 2014; 10(5): 1004077.
 
[24]  L Kuo, PS Masters. Functional analysis of the murine coronavirus genomic RNA packaging signal. Journal of virology. 2013; 87(9): 5182-5192.
 
[25]  VD. Hoek, K. Pyrc, MF. Jebbink, OW. Vermeulen-, RJ. Berkhout, KC. Wolthers. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med. 2004; 10: 368-373.
 
[26]  L. Sarparast, M.J. Saffar, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: A Review, J Pediatr Rev. 2015 January; 3(1):130.
 
[27]  H Zhang, Q Chen, W Zhou, S Gao, H Lin, S Ye, Y Xu, and J Cai. Chinese Medicine Injection Shuanghuanglian for Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. HPC Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Volume 2013, P 7.
 
[28]  L. Wang, L. Cheng, Q. Yuan et al., “Adverse drug reactions of Shuanghuanglian injection: a systematic review of public literatures,” Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, vol.3, no.1, P.18–26,2010.
 
[29]  W. Zhou, L. Di, X. Bi, L. Chen, and Q. Du, “Study on in situ intestinal absorption of active ingredients in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid in rats, ”Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, vol.36, 2011, pp.1733-1738.
 
[30]  X.T. Kong, H.T. Fang, G.Q. Jiang, S.Z. Zhai, D.L.O’ Connell, and D. R. Brewster, “Treatment of acute bronchiolitis with Chinese herbs,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol.68, 1993, pp.468-471.
 
[31]  J Cinatl, B Morgenstern, G Bauer, P Chandra, H Rabenau, H W Doerr. Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots, and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus. THE LANCET, Vol 361,June 14, 2003; 2045-2046.
 
[32]  JM Crance, N Scaramozzino, A Jouan, D Garin. Interferon, ribavirin, 6-azauridine, and glycyrrhizin: antiviral compounds active against pathogenic flaviviruses. Antiviral Res 2003; 58: 73-79.
 
[33]  YL Lin, YL Huang, SH Ma. Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by nitric oxide: antiviral effect of nitric oxide on RNA virus replication. J Virol 1997; 71: 5227-5235.
 
[34]  E.Nulens, Guide to Infection Control in the Hospital,International society for Infectuos desease. February, 2018, P 1-16.
 
[35]  CDC. Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Update: Universal Precautions for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Other Bloodborne Pathogens in Health-Care Settings. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1988; 37(24):377-88, 387-8.
 
[36]  Saudi Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Novel Corona Virus (2019-nCoV) Infection Guidelines V1.0 January 2020, P-1-25.
 
[37]  LJ Stockman, R Bellamy, P Garner. SARS: Systematic review of treatment effects. Med. 2006; 3(9): 343.
 
[38]  A. Billiau, The mode of action of interferons in viral infections and theirepossible role in the control of hepatitis B. Journal of Hepatology, 1980.