American Journal of Biomedical Research
ISSN (Print): 2328-3947 ISSN (Online): 2328-3955 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajbr Editor-in-chief: Hari K. Koul
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American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2019, 7(2), 44-50
DOI: 10.12691/ajbr-7-2-4
Open AccessArticle

Haematological Parameters by Age and Sex of Asymptomatic Indigenous Cattle and Sheep Infected with Gastrointestinal Parasites in Kerio Valley, Kenya

E. C. Ngetich1, 2, , M. Ngeiywa2, G. M. Ng’wena3 and Chemwolo L.4

1Department of Biological and Biomedical Science, Laikipia University, P.O Box 1100, Nyahururu, Kenya

2Department of Biological Science, University of Eldoret, Box 1125, Eldoret, Kenya

3Department of Medical Physiology, Maseno University, Box 333, Maseno-Kenya

4University of Kabianga, Box 2030, Kericho- Kenya

Pub. Date: December 24, 2019

Cite this paper:
E. C. Ngetich, M. Ngeiywa, G. M. Ng’wena and Chemwolo L.. Haematological Parameters by Age and Sex of Asymptomatic Indigenous Cattle and Sheep Infected with Gastrointestinal Parasites in Kerio Valley, Kenya. American Journal of Biomedical Research. 2019; 7(2):44-50. doi: 10.12691/ajbr-7-2-4

Abstract

Gastro-intestinal parasites are prevalent and directly impede livestock production causing impaired productivity. Haematological parameters, which are likely to be influenced by parasites, are generally indicators of healthy status in an animal. The effect of gastrointestinal infections on the health of indigenous cattle and sheep in semi-arid areas is still not clear. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in apparently healthy cattle and sheep kept under free-range management in upper Kerio Valley Kenya and determine any associations between intestinal parasite infections and haematological parameters. Blood and stool samples of 214 indigenous cattle and 82 sheep were evaluated. Haematological parameters from the parasite-infected and non-parasite livestock were compared. Analyses of lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear white blood cells, packed cell volume, red blood cell count and distribution width, white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count were performed. Strongyloides and Fasciola hepatica species were the most frequently isolated. Overall, 37 (17.3%), 31 (14.5%) of cattle and 32 (39%), 8 (9.3%) of sheep faecal samples were positive for Strongyloides and Fasciola hepatica infections respectively. Haematological variations significantly (p < 0.05) existed for blood values (WBC, lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, RBC, MCH, MCHC, RDW, PLT, and MPV) in sheep between those infected and those uninfected with intestinal parasites. In cattle, the white blood cell (WBC) (mean 15.10) and MPV (mean 8.9) were significantly higher compared with standard reference values (4-12 and 3.5-6.5, respectively). The blood parameters significantly lower (p < .05) in nematode infected sheep were monocytes, granulocytes, HGB and HCT while WBC, Lymphocytes, platelets and MPV were significantly (p < .05) elevated in infected compared with uninfected sheep. The finding of Trichostrongyloides species and trematode parasites among livestock in Kerio Valley is essential in understanding the epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasitic infection for better comprehensive treatment and control strategies. The changes in haematological values as observed in infected and non-infected livestock, can applied as an alternative means of diagnosis and understanding disease prognosis of animal disease and status. The haematological values reported in this study, can also serve as baseline information for selection of livestock that are genetically resistant to certain diseases and prevailing environmental conditions as found in Kerio Valley, Kenya.

Keywords:
indigenous livestock haematological parameters gastrointestinal parasites Strongyloides Fasciola Kerio Valley Kenya

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