American Journal of Applied Psychology
ISSN (Print): 2333-472X ISSN (Online): 2333-4738 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(4), 100-108
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-4-4
Open AccessArticle

A Comparative Study of Perceptions of Runaway and Homeliving Children

Syeda Mehreen Zahra1,

1Lahore Garrison University, Department of Applied Psychology, Lahore, Pakistan

Pub. Date: December 25, 2015

Cite this paper:
Syeda Mehreen Zahra. A Comparative Study of Perceptions of Runaway and Homeliving Children. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(4):100-108. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-4-4


The study explores the perceptions of runaway and home living children on five domains of family, school, self, future and world and also studies the difference between the two groups on these five domains. Data was collected individually by administration of a sentence completion test. The test was developed during the process of this research keeping in mind the characteristics of runaway children. The sample consisted of 80 boys of age 12-16 and 40 children were taken from Runaway and 40 were taken from Home living group. The sampling strategy adopted for data collection was Convenience sampling. Chi square and frequencies were calculated to analyze the results. The significant values of chi square indicate that there is a difference between the perceptions of runaway and home living children. Furthermore the results of distribution of frequencies show that runaway children have negative perceptions on these five domains as compared to home living children. Findings of the present study are effective for reducing the runaway behavior of children by working on the perceptions of children especially on these five domains.

perceptions family school self future world

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Amal human development network in partnership with UNESCO Pakistan. (2005). Situational analysis of street children education for all policy review and best Practices studies on basic NFE for children living and/or working on the streets in Pakistan. Pakistan: Tufail, P.
[2]  Apteker, L. (2000). Street children Finland: A global view of street children in 2,000. California, San Jose State University, 1-15.
[3]  Azad Foundation., (2004, June). The Knowledge Attitude Behavior Practices Study (KABPs). Karachi.
[4]  Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Context of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34, 844-850.
[5]  Chun, J. & Springer, D. (2005). Stress and Coping Strategies among Runaway and Homeless Youth: An Application of Concept Mapping. .Brief Treatment and Crises Intervention, 5, 57-74.
[6]  Dubrow, N. (1992). The mental health of street youth. In, Editor Reaching the hard to reach: Health Strategies for Serving Urban Young Women, New York: Childhope, 17-18.
[7]  Daniel, S., & Brennen, M. A. (2006). Missing Children Incidences and Characteristics of Runaway Children and Resources Available to them (FCS2254). Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences. Florida: University of Florida, 1-5, Retreived July 28, 2009, from http://eddis.ifas,
[8]  Eggen, J. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2015, from
[9]  Halstead, H. (1960). The Sentence Completion Test: An Experiment and Evaluation. Journal of Mental Science, 106, 663-674.
[10]  Hale, J. (n.d) the three basic types of descriptive research methods. Retrieved from
[11]  Herek (n.d) A Brief Introduction to Sampling. Retrieved 19 November 2015 from
[12]  Larson, B. & Susan, M. (1995). Literacy perceptions of runaway adolescents. (CS 012 001) US: Educational Resources Information Center. (ED 379 603).
[13]  Martinez, C. (2008). Living in (or Leaving) the streets: Why street youth choose the streets despite Opportunities in shelters. Street youth research shelter based children. Retrieved August 21, 2008.from http://
[14]  Matchinda, B. (1999). The impact of home background on the decision of children to Runaway: The case of Younde city street children in Cameron. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23 (3), 245-255.
[15]  Mughal, A.H. (2007). Distanced from home and family. Discourse, 26, 9- 11. Retreived June 28, 2009, from,
[16]  Pakistan Focus on Runaway Child Report. (2004). Asian Human Rights Commission Weekly Newsletter, 3(36). Retrieved July, 2009 from
[17]  Population-Council Pakistan. (2001). Street Children in Pakistan. Pakistan Manuscript submitted to Committee on the rights of the child (1-46). Pakistan: Anonymous.
[18]  Raffaelli, M., Koller, S., Reppold, C., Kuchick, M., Krum, M.B., Banerra, D. (2000).Gender Differences in Brazilian street youth’s family circumstances and experiences on the street. Child Abuse and Neglect 24(11), 1431-1441.
[19]  Raffaelli, M., Koller, S. (2005). Future expectations of Brasillian street youth. Journal of Adolescence. 2(7), 249-262.
[20]  Ramsey, L. (2008). Perception of family cohesion and achievement orientation among Runaway adolescents: Understanding school performance. Unpublished Senior Honors Theses, Ohio State University.
[21]  Rizzini, I. & Lusk, M. (1995). Children in the streets: Latin America’s lost Generation. Children and youth services Review, 17(3), 391-410.
[22]  Rotter, J.B., and Rafferty, Jannet E. (1950). The Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank: Manual, New York.
[23]  Safyer, A., Thompson, S., Maccio, E., Zittal-Palamara, K., Forehand., MSW. (2004).Adolescent’s And Parent’s perceptions of runaway behavior: Problems and solutions. Child And Adolescent’s Social Work Journal, 21(5), 495.
[24]  Slesnick, N., & Prestopnick, J. (2008). Perception of the family environment and youth behavior: Alchohol- abusing runaway adolescents and their primary care taskers. PubMed Central, 12(3), 243-253.
[25]  South Asia Partnership-Pakistan (SAP-PK). (2001). South Asian Review of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Pakistan Study Report. Ahmed, M.N. Retrieved July 29, 2009, from,
[26]  Stein (1972). Family Systems theory: Environmental Influences.119-120. Developd and adopted by New Maxico’s House Memorial 5 Task Force on Children and Families and the Coaliion for Children (1990).
[27]  Stein, Milburn, Zane, Borus (2010). Paternal and Maternal Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless and Runaway Youth AM J Orthopsychiatry 79(1): 39-50.
[28]  The World Bank. (2002). Street Children: Promising Practices and Approaches. Volpi, E.
[29]  UNICEF. (2002). Community based facts findings on runaway children in North West Frontier Province Pakistan. Ismail, M. Retrieved July 27, 2009, from,
[30]  Vaus, D. D. (2014). Surveys in social research, Australia and New zeeland: Routledge
[31]  Whitbeck, L., Hoyt, D., & Wa-Ning Bao.(2000). Depressive Symptoms and Co-occurring Depressive Symptoms, Substance Abuse, and Conduct Problems among Runaway and Homeless Adolescents. Child Development, 71(3), 721-723.
[32]  Zakariah. (2005). Street Children of Pakistan. Retrieved July 29, 2009 from http://acr,