American Journal of Applied Psychology
ISSN (Print): 2333-472X ISSN (Online): 2333-4738 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(3), 62-66
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-3-3
Open AccessArticle

The Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Body Appreciation Scale

Mohammad Atari1, , Saeed Akbari-Zardkhaneh2, Leila Mohammadi1 and Mehrnoosh Soufiabadi1

1Department of psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Pub. Date: June 07, 2015

Cite this paper:
Mohammad Atari, Saeed Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Leila Mohammadi and Mehrnoosh Soufiabadi. The Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Body Appreciation Scale. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(3):62-66. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-3-3


Previous research has shown that the factor structure of Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) may be different across different cultures. The present study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of Body Appreciation Scale in a sample of 206 Iranian women. Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, parallel analysis, and correlational analysis were conducted to evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the instrument. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution; however, parallel analysis and scree plot suggested a two-factor structure. The two-factor solution had a supporting body of literature in non-Western populations and could be conceptually explained. The internal consistency of the scale was very high (alpha=0.94). Concurrent validity of the scale was assessed by correlational analysis of the related constructs. BAS was significantly correlated with the related variables. Suggestions for future research on the factor structure of the scale are discussed.

body appreciation body image validation psychometrics factor analysis

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Smolak, L., & Cash, T. F. “Future challenges for body image science, practice, and prevention”. In T. F. Cash&L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 471-478). New York, NY: Guilford Press. 2011.
[2]  Tylka, T. L. “Positive psychology perspectives on body image”. In T. F. Cash & L. Smolak (Eds.), Body image: A handbook of science, practice, and prevention (2nd ed., pp. 56-64). New York, NY: Guilford Press. 2011.
[3]  Avalos, L. C., Tylka, T. L., &Wood-Barcalow, N. “The Body Appreciation Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation”. Body Image, 2, 486-497. 2005.
[4]  Wood-Barcalow, N. L., Tylka, T. L., & Augustus-Horvath, C. L. “But I like my body: Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young adult women”. Body Image, 7, 106-116. 2010.
[5]  Swami, V., Stieger, S., Haubner, T., & Voracek, M. “German translation and psychometric evaluation of the Body Appreciation Scale”. Body Image, 5, 122-127. 2008.
[6]  Lobera, I. J., & Ríos, P. B. “Spanish version of the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS) for adolescents”. The Spanish journal of psychology, 14(1), 411-420. 2011.
[7]  Swami, V. “Body appreciation, media influence, and weight status predict consideration of cosmetic surgery among female undergraduates”. Body Image, 6, 315-317. 2009.
[8]  Kroon Van Diest, A. M., & Tylka, T. L. “The Caregiver Eating Messages Scale: Development and psychometric investigation”. Body Image, 7, 317-326.2010.
[9]  Augustus-Horvath, C. L., & Tylka, T. L. “The acceptance model of intuitive eating: A comparison of women in emerging adulthood, early adulthood, and middle adulthood”. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 110-125. 2011.
[10]  Swami, V., Hadji-Michael, M., & Furnham, A. “Personality and individual difference correlates of positive body image”. Body Image, 5, 322-325. 2008.
[11]  Swami, V., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. “Factor structure of the Body Appreciation Scale among Malaysian women”. Body Image, 5, 409-413. 2008.
[12]  Swami, V., Campana, A. N. N. B., Fereirra, L., Barrett, S., Harris, A. S., & Tavares, M. C. G. C. F. “The Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale: Initial examination of its factor structure and correlates among Brazilian adults”. Body Image, 8, 179-185. 2011.
[13]  Ng, S., Barron, D., & Swami, V. “Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Body Appreciation Scale among adults in Hong Kong”. Body Image, 13, 1-8. 2015.
[14]  Swami, V., Hwang, C. S., & Jung, J. “An examination of the factor structure and correlates of acceptance of cosmetic surgery among South Korean university students”. Aesthetic Surgery Journal, 32, 220-229. 2012.
[15]  Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. “Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies”. Health psychology4(3), 219. 1985.
[16]  Marshall, G. N., & Lang, E. L. “Optimism, self-mastery, and symptoms of depression in women”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 132–139. 1990.
[17]  Schaefer, L. M., & Thompson, J. K. “The Development and Validation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R)”. Eating behaviors15(2), 209-217. 2014.
[18]  Naraghi, M. & Atari, M. “Interest in aesthetic rhinoplasty: scale development and validation”. Unpublished research report; Rhinology Research Society. 2015.
[19]  Motakef, S., Motakef, S., Chung, M. T., Ingargiola, M. J., & Rodriguez-Feliz, J. “The cosmetic surgery stigma: an American cultural phenomenon?” Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 134(5), 854-855. 2014.
[20]  Naraghi, M. & Atari, M. “Comparison of Patterns of Psychopathology in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Patients versus Functional Rhinoplasty Patients”. Otolaryngology- Head and Neck Surgery, 150(2): 244-249. 2015.
[21]  Naraghi, M., & Atari, M. “A comparison of depression scores between aesthetic and functional rhinoplasty patients”. Asian journal of psychiatry. 14:28-30. 2015.
[22]  Pedhazur, E. J., & Schmelkin, L. P. “Measurement, design, and analysis: An integrated approach”. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1991.
[23]  Cattell, R. B. “The scree plot test for the number of factors”. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 140-161. 1966.
[24]  Patil, V. H., McPherson, M. Q.,& Friesner, D. “The use of exploratory factor analysis in public health: A note on parallel analysis as a factor retention criterion”. American Journal of Health Promotion, 24, 178-181. 2010.
[25]  Swami, V., Jaafar, J. L. “Factor structure of the body appreciation scale among Indonesian women and men: further evidence of a two-factor solution in a non-Western population”. Body Image, 9, 539-542. 2012.
[26]  Tylka, T.L. “Evidence for the Body Appreciation Scale’s measurement equivalence/ invariance between U.S. college women and men”. Body image, 10, 415-418. 2013.
[27]  Sarwer, D. B., Cash, T. F., Magee, L., et al. “Female college students and cosmetic surgery: An investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image”. Plastic and reconstructive surgery115(3), 931-938. 2005.