American Journal of Applied Psychology
ISSN (Print): 2333-472X ISSN (Online): 2333-4738 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015, 3(1), 15-21
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Gender Role Perception among the Awra Amba Community

Seid Ebrie1,

1Department of Psychology, College of Social Sciences and Languages, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: March 03, 2015

Cite this paper:
Seid Ebrie. Gender Role Perception among the Awra Amba Community. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2015; 3(1):15-21. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-1-4


The objective of this study was to discover the influence of age and sex on gender role perception of the Awra Amba community. For this purpose, a total of 180 participants (from 403 total Awra Amba population), 60 from three age groups (children, adolescents and adults), 30 from two sex groups (male and female) were selected by using stratified random sampling method. Two different instruments (Personal Attribute Questionnaire and Social Role Questionnaire) were adapted and pilot tested. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, One-Way ANOVA and independent t-test were employed. In relation to the major findings, there is a statistically significant difference in gender role perception among the Awra Amba children, adolescents and adults. While children hold stereotypic and traditional gender role perception, adolescents and adults demonstrate androgynous and egalitarian gender role perception. Besides, egalitarian and non-traditional gender role perception increases with age in the Awra Amba community when one grows older from childhood to adolescence and adulthood. Finally, there was no statistically significant difference between the Awra Amba males and females in gender role perception. Both males’ and females’ gender role perception is androgynous and egalitarian or non-traditional.

Awra Amba gender gender role perception

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Baber, K. M., & Tucker, C. J, “The social role questionnaire: a new approach to measuring perception towards gender roles,” Sex roles, 24. 34-46. 2006.
[2]  Bem, S. I, “Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing,” Psychological review, 88. 354-364. 1981.
[3]  Bepeko, C., & Krestan, J, Too good for her own good: Searching for self and intimacy in important relationships, HarperCollins, New York, 1990.
[4]  Berryman-Fink, C., Ballard-Risch, D., & Newman, L. H, Communication and sex role socialization, Garland Publishing, New York, 1993.
[5]  Bronferbrenner, U., Alvarez, W., & Henderson, C, “Working and Watching: Maternal employment in parents’ perceptions of their three-year-old children,” Child development, 55. 1362-1378. 1984.
[6]  Fan, L. P., & Marini, M. M, “Influences of gender-role attitudes during the transition to adulthood,” Social science research, 29. 258-283. 2000.
[7]  Farrell, W, The myth of male power: Why men are the disposable sex, Simon & Schuster New York, 1995.
[8]  Feldman, S. S., & Wentzel, K.R, “The relationship between parenting styles, son’s self-restraint, and peer relations in early adolescence,” Developmental psychology, 10. 439-454. 1990.
[9]  Gardner, H. W., & Kosmitzki, C, Lives across cultures: cross-cultral human development (2nd ed.), Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 2002.
[10]  Katsurada, E., & Sugihara, Y, “Gender differences in gender role perceptions among Japanese college students,” Sex roles: A journal of research, 1999. [Online]. Available: http://find articles/mi_m2294/ is_1999 _Nov / ai 60013046. [Accessed November 2008].
[11]  Katz, P. A, “The development female identity,” Sex roles, 5. 155-178. 1979.
[12]  Katz, P. A., & Ksansnak, K. R, “Developmental aspects of gender role flexibility and traditionality in middle school childhood and adolescence,” Developmental psychology, 30. 272-282. 1994.
[13]  Kering, P. K., Alyoshina, Y. Y., & Volovich, A, “Gender-role socialization in contemporary Russia: Implications for cross cultural research,” Psychology of women quarterly, 17. 389-408. 1993.
[14]  Kohlberg, L. A, A cognitive developmental analysis of children’s sex role concepts and attitudes. In Maccoby E.C. (ed.), the development of sex differences, 82-173, Stanford University press, Stanford, CA, 1966.
[15]  Konrad, A. M., & Harris, C, “Desirability of the sex-role inventory items for women and men: A comparison between African American and European Americans,” Sex roles: A journal of research, 2002. [Online]. Available: http// mi_m2294/is_2002_spet/ai_96736801. [Accessed November, 2008].
[16]  Santrock, J. W, Life-span development: (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill companies, Inc.,New York, 2006.
[17]  Santrock, J. W, Child development (6th ed.), Brown & Benchmark, Madison:, 1994.
[18]  Schacfer, R. T, Sociology (9th ed.), McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 2005.
[19]  Seyoum Tefera, “The education of women in Ethiopia: A missing piece in the development puzzle” The Ethiopian journal of education, 1. 5-19. 1986.
[20]  Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. T, Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions correlates, and antecedents, University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, 1978.
[21]  Steinbacher, R., & Gilroy, F, “Sex selection technology: A prediction of its use and effect” Journal of psychology, 124. 283-288. 1990.
[22]  Tesfaye Woltamo, The development of gender knowledge and gender typed beliefs in preschool years, Unpublished master’s thesis, Addis Ababa University, 1997.
[23]  Tu, S. H., & Liao, P. S, “Gender differences in gender-role attitudes: A comparative analysis of Taiwan and coastal china,” Journal of comparative family studies, 36. 545-566. 2005.
[24]  Tuck, B., Rolfe, J., & Adair, V. “Adolescents’ attitude toward gender roles with in work and its relationship to gender, personality type, and parental occupation,” Sex roles: a journal of research, 1994. [Online]. Available: mi _ m2294/is_n9-10_v31/ai_16475681. [Accessed September, 2008].
[25]  UNICEF, The state of the world’s children 2002, Geneva, 2004.
[26]  United Nations, Improving the quality of life of girls, New York, 2002.
[27]  Viorst, J, Necessary losses, Fawcett gold medal, New York, 1986.
[28]  Wendmagen Baye, The impact of traditional gender role socialization on gender inequality in primary education: A case study in Bati Woreda/Oromia Special Zone Amhara Region, Unpublished master’s thesis, Addis Ababa Unviersity, 2008.
[29]  Witt, S. D, “Parental influence on children’s socialization to gender roles. Adolescence,” (1997). [Online]. Available: http://find [Accessed October, 2008].
[30]  Yalew Endawoke, Sex role stereotypical attitudes of the society towards females as leaders: The case of Amhara National Regional State, Unpublished master’s thesis, Addis Ababa University, 1997.
[31]  Zhang, N, “Gender-role egalitarian attitudes among Chinese college students,” Sex roles: A journal of research, 2006. [Online]. Available: is_ 55/ai_ n2052501. [Accessed Novemebr 2008].