American Journal of Applied Psychology
ISSN (Print): 2333-472X ISSN (Online): 2333-4738 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajap Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2019, 7(1), 11-19
DOI: 10.12691/ajap-7-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Workplace Gender Discrimination and Job Performance in Egypt: The Moderating Role of Equity Sensitivity

Mohamad Saad1,

1Department of Psychology, the British University in Egypt, Cairo, 11837, Egypt

Pub. Date: January 24, 2019

Cite this paper:
Mohamad Saad. Workplace Gender Discrimination and Job Performance in Egypt: The Moderating Role of Equity Sensitivity. American Journal of Applied Psychology. 2019; 7(1):11-19. doi: 10.12691/ajap-7-1-2

Abstract

Workplace gender discrimination is a significant problem in Egypt. However, there is limited research on Workplace gender discrimination and its consequences. The current research tries to examine the relationships between workplace gender discrimination and task and contextual job performances. Moreover, the moderating effect of equity sensitivity on these relationships is also investigated. A convenience sample on 312 working women was drawn from different work settings in Cairo, Egypt. They responded to a three-part questionnaire that assesses workplace gender discrimination, equity sensitivity, and job performance. The results indicated that workplace gender discrimination was negatively associated with both of task and contextual performances. Moreover, equity sensitivity was found to moderate the relationship between workplace gender discrimination and contextual performance only. These results were discussed in the light of the extant theoretical and empirical literature. In addition, limitation, future research and conclusion are also reported.

Keywords:
gender discrimination workplace equity sensitivity task performance contextual performance Egypt

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Amnesty International (2015). Circles of hell: Domestic, public and state violence against women in Egypt. London: Amnesty International.
 
[2]  CAPMAS (2014). Labor force: Statistical Yearbook. Cairo: Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics.
 
[3]  Greenhouse, S. (2004). August 18. Woman sues Costco, claiming sex bias in promotions. New York Times, C3.
 
[4]  James, E. H., & Wooten, L. P. (2006). Diversity crises: How firms manage discrimination lawsuits. Academy of Management Journal, 49(6), 1103-1118.‏
 
[5]  Wooten, L. P., & James, E. H. (2004). When firms fail to learn: The perpetuation of discrimination in the workplace. Journal of Management Inquiry, 13(1), 23-33.‏
 
[6]  Cornejo, J. M. (2007). An examination of the relationships among perceived gender discrimination, work motivation, and performance.‏
 
[7]  De Castro, A. B., Gee, G. C., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2008). Workplace discrimination and health among Filipinos in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 98(3), 520-526.‏
 
[8]  Huseman, R. C., Hatfield, J. D., & Miles, E. W. (1985). Test for individual perceptions of job equity: Some preliminary findings. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61(3_suppl), 1055-1064.‏
 
[9]  Schneid, M., Isidor, R., Li, C., & Kabst, R. (2015). The influence of cultural context on the relationship between gender diversity and team performance: A meta-analysis. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(6), 733-756.‏
 
[10]  Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
 
[11]  Billett, S., Dymock, D., Johnson, G., & Martin, G. (2011). Last resort employees: older workers' perceptions of workplace discrimination. Human Resource Development International, 14(4), 375-389.‏
 
[12]  Draper, W., Hawley, C., McMahon, B. T., & Reid, C. A. (2012). Workplace discrimination and the record of disability. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 36(3), 199-206.‏
 
[13]  Drumea, c. (2018). Discrimination and gender balance in public organizations. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Brasov. Series V: Economic Sciences, 11(2).‏
 
[14]  Furunes, T., & Mykletun, R. J. (2010). Age discrimination in the workplace: Validation of the Nordic Age Discrimination Scale (NADS). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51(1), 23-30.‏
 
[15]  Hoke, T. (2013). A Question of Ethics: The Importance of Eradicating Workplace Discrimination. Civil Engineering Magazine Archive, 83(11), 42-43.‏
 
[16]  Huffman, M. L., Cohen, P. N., & Pearlman, J. (2010). Engendering change: Organizational dynamics and workplace gender desegregation, 1975-2005. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(2), 255-277.‏
 
[17]  Malos, S. (2010). Post-9/11 backlash in the workplace: Employer liability for discrimination against Arab-and Muslim-Americans based on religion or national origin. Employee responsibilities and rights journal, 22(4), 297-310.‏
 
[18]  Russinova, Z., Griffin, S., Bloch, P., Wewiorski, N. J., & Rosoklija, I. (2011). Workplace prejudice and discrimination toward individuals with mental illnesses. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 35(3), 227-241.‏
 
[19]  Schallenkamp, K., DeBeaumont, R., & Houy, J. (2012). Weight-Based Discrimination in the Workplace: Is Legal Protection Necessary?. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 24(4), 251-259.‏
 
[20]  International Labour Organization (2003). Time for equality at work. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office.
 
[21]  King, N. J., Pillay, S., & Lasprogata, G. A. (2006). Workplace privacy and discrimination issues related to genetic data: a comparative law study of the European Union and the United States. Am. Bus. LJ, 43, 79.‏
 
[22]  Sarra, J. (2005). Class act: Considering race and gender in the corporate boardroom. St. John’s Law Review, 79, 1121-1160.
 
[23]  Scott, J., & Nolan, J. (2007). New technology and gendered divisions of labour: Problems and prospects for equality in the public and private spheres. Equal Opportunities International, 26, 89-95.
 
[24]  Carr, P. L., Szalacha, L., Barnett, R., Caswell, C., & Inui, T. (2003). A" ton of feathers": gender discrimination in academic medical careers and how to manage it. Journal of Women's Health, 12(10), 1009-1018.‏
 
[25]  Mohamad, M. S. (2016). Discrimination, harassment, and workplace violence against working women in Egypt. Cairo University, Faculty of Arts, Project of Supporting Scientific Research in Social Sciences.
 
[26]  Bartlett, K. T. (2009). Making good on good intentions: The critical role of motivation in reducing implicit workplace discrimination. Virginia Law Review, 1893-1972.‏
 
[27]  Elliott, J. R., & Smith, R. A. (2004). Race, gender, and workplace power. American Sociological Review, 69(3), 365-386.‏
 
[28]  Gorman, E. H., & Kmec, J. A. (2009). Hierarchical rank and women’s organizational mobility: Glass ceilings in corporate law firms. American Journal of Sociology, 114(5), 1428-1474.‏
 
[29]  Stainback, K., Ratliff, T. N., & Roscigno, V. J. (2011). The context of workplace sex discrimination: Sex composition, workplace culture and relative power. Social Forces, 89(4), 1165-1188.‏
 
[30]  Wood, S., Braeken, J., & Niven, K. (2013). Discrimination and well-being in organizations: Testing the differential power and organizational justice theories of workplace aggression. Journal of business ethics, 115(3), 617-634.‏
 
[31]  Bible, D., & Hill, K. L. (2007). Discrimination: Women in business. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication and Conflict, 11(1), 65-76.‏
 
[32]  Catalyst. (2007). 2006 Catalyst census of women in Fortune 500 corporate officer and board positions. Retrieved from http://www.catalyst.org/knowledge/2006-catalyst-census-womencorporate-officers-and-top-earners-fortune-500.
 
[33]  Noble, C., & Moore, S. (2006). Advancing women and leadership in this post-feminist, post EEO era. Women in Management Review, 21, 598-603.
 
[34]  Probert, B. (2005). I just couldn’t fit it in: Gender and unequal outcomes in academic careers. Gender, Work and Organization, 12(1), 50-72.
 
[35]  Catalyst (2002). Census of women corporate officers and top earners of the Fortune 500. New York: Catalyst.
 
[36]  Wentling, R. M. (2003). The career development and aspirations of women in middle management-revisited. Women in Management Review, 18(6), 331-324.
 
[37]  Burress, J., & Zucca, L. J. (2004). The gender equity gap in top corporate executive positions. American Journal of Business, 19(1), 55-62.‏
 
[38]  Oehmichen, J., Sarry, M. A., & Wolff, M. (2014). Beyond human capital explanations for the gender pay gap among executives: Investigating board embeddedness effects on discrimination. Business Research, 7(2), 351-380.‏
 
[39]  Ostroff, C., & Atwater, L. E. (2003). Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 725.‏
 
[40]  Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., & Postmes, T. (2003). Women's emotional responses to the pervasiveness of gender discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(3), 297-312.‏
 
[41]  Sipe, S., Johnson, C. D., & Fisher, D. K. (2009). University students' perceptions of gender discrimination in the workplace: Reality versus fiction. Journal of Education for Business, 84(6), 339-349.‏
 
[42]  Leutwiler, J., & Kleiner, B. H. (2003). Statistical analysis for determining pay discrimination. Equal Opportunities International, 22(6/7), 1-8.‏
 
[43]  Hymowitz, C. (2005). Women fall for old stereotypes of themselves, study says. The Wall Street Journal, November 6.
 
[44]  Jackson, L. M., Esses, V. M., & Burris, C. T. (2001). Contemporary sexism and discrimination: The importance of respect for men and women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(1), 48-61.‏
 
[45]  Kmec, J. A. (2005). Setting occupational sex segregation in motion: Demand side explanations of sex traditional employment. Work and Occupations, 32: 322-354.
 
[46]  Heilman, M. E., & Eagly, A. H. (2008). Gender stereotypes are alive, well, and busy producing workplace discrimination. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(4), 393-398.‏
 
[47]  Martell, R. F., Parker, C., Emrich, C. G., & Crawford, M. S. (1998). Sex Stereotyping in the Executive Suite:" Much Ado About Something". Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 13(1), 127-138.‏
 
[48]  Welle, B., & Heilman, M. E. (2007). Formal and informal discrimination against women at work. Research in social issues in management: Managing social and ethical issues in organizations, 229-252.‏
 
[49]  Catalyst (2004). The Bottom Line: Connecting Corporate Performance and Gender Diversity. Catalyst: New York.
 
[50]  Motowidlo, S.J. (2003). Job performance. In W.C. Borman, D.R. Ilgen & R.J. Klimoski (Eds.). Handbook of psychology, 12: Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 39-53. John Wiley & Sons: New York
 
[51]  Johnson, J. W. (2003). Toward a better understanding of the relationship between personality and individual job performance. Personality and work: Reconsidering the role of personality in organizations, 83, 120.‏
 
[52]  Oh, I. S., & Berry, C. M. (2009). The five-factor model of personality and managerial performance: Validity gains through the use of 360 degree performance ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6), 1498.‏
 
[53]  Takeuchi, R., Li, Y., & Wang, M. (2019). Expatriates’ Performance Profiles: Examining the Effects of Work Experiences on the Longitudinal Change Patterns. Journal of Management, 45(2), 451-475.‏
 
[54]  Catalyst (2001). Women in financial services: The word on the street. New York: Catalyst.
 
[55]  Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of applied psychology, 86(3), 425.‏
 
[56]  Ensher, E. A., Grant-Vallone, E. J., & Donaldson, S. I. (2001). Effects of perceived discrimination on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and grievances. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 12(1), 53-72.‏
 
[57]  Feagin, J. R., & McKinney, K. D. (2003). The many costs of racism. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
 
[58]  Roscigno, V. J., Mong, S., Byron, R., & Tester, G. (2007). Age discrimination, social closure and employment. Social Forces, 86(1), 313-334.‏
 
[59]  Banerjee, R. (2008). An examination of factors affecting perception of workplace discrimination. Journal of Labor Research, 29(4), 380.‏
 
[60]  Channar, Z. A., Abbassi, Z., & Ujan, I. A. (2011). Gender discrimination in workforce and its impact on the employees. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 5(1), 177-191.‏
 
[61]  Deitch, E., Barsky, A., Butz, R., Chan, S., Brief, A. & Bradley, J. (2003). Subtle yet significant: The existence and impact of everyday racial discrimination in the workplace. Human Relations, 56:1299-1324.
 
[62]  Dalton, D. W., Cohen, J. R., Harp, N. L., & McMillan, J. J. (2014). Antecedents and consequences of perceived gender discrimination in the audit profession. Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, 33(3), 1-32.‏
 
[63]  Bowling, N. A., & Beehr, T. A. (2006). Workplace harassment from the victim’s perspective: A theoretical model and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 998-1012.
 
[64]  Hershcovis, M. S., & Barling, J. (2010). Comparing victim attributions and outcomes for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 874.‏
 
[65]  De Jonge, J., & Dormann, C. (2006). Stressors, resources, and strain at work: A longitudinal test of the triple-match principle. Journal of applied psychology, 91(6), 1359.‏
 
[66]  Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of personality and social psychology, 48(1), 150.‏
 
[67]  Randolph, D. S. (2005). The meaning of workplace discrimination for women with disabilities. Work, 24(4), 369-380.‏
 
[68]  Lavelle, J. J., Rupp, D. E., & Brockner, J. (2007). Taking a multifoci approach to the study of justice, social exchange, and citizenship behavior: The target similarity model. Journal of management, 33(6), 841-866.‏
 
[69]  Moorman, R. H., Blakely, G. L., & Niehoff, B. P. (1998). Does perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior?. Academy of Management journal, 41(3), 351-357.‏
 
[70]  Skarlicki, D. P., Folger, R., & Tesluk, P. (1999). Personality as a moderator in the relationship between fairness and retaliation. Academy of management journal, 42(1), 100-108.‏
 
[71]  Konovsky, M. A., & Pugh, S. D. (1994). Citizenship behavior and social exchange. Academy of management journal, 37(3), 656-669.‏
 
[72]  Vecchio, R. P. (1981). An individual-differences interpretation of the conflicting predictions generated by equity and expectancy theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66(4), 470.‏
 
[73]  Sauley, K. S., & Bedeian, A. G. (2000). Equity sensitivity: Construction of a measure and examination of its psychometric properties. Journal of Management, 26(5), 885-910.‏
 
[74]  Woodley, H. J., & Allen, N. J. (2014). The dark side of equity sensitivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 67, 103-108.‏
 
[75]  Allen, R. S., & White, C. S. (2002). Equity sensitivity theory: A test of responses to two types of under-reward situations. Journal of managerial issues, 435-451.‏
 
[76]  Suazo, M. M., & Turnley, W. H. (2010). Perceived organizational support as a mediator of the relations between individual differences and psychological contract breach. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(6), 620-648.‏
 
[77]  Blakely, G. L., Andrews, M. C., & Moorman, R. H. (2005). The moderating effects of equity sensitivity on the relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20(2), 259-273.‏
 
[78]  Fok, L. Y., Hartman, S. J., Patti, A. L., & Razek, J. R. (2000). The relationships between equity sensitivity, growth need strength, organizational citizenship behavior, and perceived outcomes in the quality environment: A study of accounting professionals. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15(1), 99.‏
 
[79]  Oren, L., & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2013). Does equity sensitivity moderate the relationship between effort–reward imbalance and burnout? Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 26(6), 643-658.‏
 
[80]  Restubog, S. L. D., Bordia, P., & Bordia, S. (2009). The interactive effects of procedural justice and equity sensitivity in predicting responses to psychological contract breach: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(2), 165-178.‏
 
[81]  Yiu, T. W., & Law, Y. M. (2011). Moderating effect of equity sensitivity on behavior-outcome relationships in construction dispute negotiation. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 137(5), 322-332.‏
 
[82]  Goodman, S. A., & Svyantek, D. J. (1999). Person–organization fit and contextual performance: Do shared values matter. Journal of vocational behavior, 55(2), 254-275.‏
 
[83]  Hershcovis, M. S. (2011). “Incivility, social undermining, bullying… oh my!”: A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(3), 499-519.‏
 
[84]  Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). New York: Academic Press.
 
[85]  Pavalko, E. K., Mossakowski, K. N., & Hamilton, V. J. (2003). Does perceived discrimination affect health? Longitudinal relationships between work discrimination and women's physical and emotional health. Journal of Health and social Behavior, 18-33.‏
 
[86]  Gutek, B. A., Cohen, A. G., & Tsui, A. (1996). Reactions to perceived sex discrimination. Human relations, 49(6), 791-813.‏
 
[87]  Shaffer, M. A., Joplin, J. R., Bell, M. P., Lau, T., & Oguz, C. (2000). Gender discrimination and job-related outcomes: A cross-cultural comparison of working women in the United States and China. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57(3), 395-427.‏
 
[88]  Allen, R. E., & Keaveny, T. J. (1985). Factors differentiating grievants and nongrievants. Human Relations, 38(6), 519-534.‏
 
[89]  Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.‏
 
[90]  Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 86(2), 278-321.‏
 
[91]  Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of management, 26(3), 513-563.‏
 
[92]  Folger, R., & Konovsky, M. A. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions. Academy of Management journal, 32(1), 115-130.‏
 
[93]  Hartman, S. J., Fok, A. Y., & Villere, M. F. (1997). The impact of culture on the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and equity sensitivity. Journal of Transnational Management Development, 2, 33-50.‏
 
[94]  Organ, D. W., & Konovsky, M. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of applied psychology, 74(1), 157.‏
 
[95]  Farh, J. L., Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1990). Accounting for organizational citizenship behavior: Leader fairness and task scope versus satisfaction. Journal of management, 16(4), 705-721.‏
 
[96]  Organ, D. W., & Moorman, R. H. (1993). Fairness and organizational citizenship behavior: What are the connections?. Social Justice Research, 6(1), 5-18.‏
 
[97]  Modood, T., Berthoud, R., Lakey, J., Nazroo, J., Smith, P., Virdee, S., Beishon, S., & Virdee, S. (1997). Fourth national survey of ethnic minorities in Britain: Diversity and disadvantage. London: Policy Studies Institute.
 
[98]  Russell, H., McGinnity, F., Quinn, E., & King O'Riain, R. (2010). The experience of discrimination in Ireland: evidence from self-report data.‏