American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN (Print): 2328-7306 ISSN (Online): 2328-7292 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajams Editor-in-chief: Mohamed Seddeek
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. 2018, 6(1), 9-16
DOI: 10.12691/ajams-6-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Diabetes and Psychological Disorders in Children

Mohamed E. M. Abdelhafez1,

1College of Business Administration, Kuwait University

Pub. Date: March 19, 2018

Cite this paper:
Mohamed E. M. Abdelhafez. Statistical Analysis of the Relationship between Diabetes and Psychological Disorders in Children. American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. 2018; 6(1):9-16. doi: 10.12691/ajams-6-1-3

Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of diabetes on the psychological characteristics in children. The study investigated 302 children aged 7 to 13 years old who had diabetes type I in Kuwait. A questionnaire was administered to participants (Parents or Guardians) of diabetic children. The questionnaire has two parts; the first part has sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the children and participants and the second part is the "strengths and difficulties questionnaire" (SDQ) [1]. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) was widely used for screening emotional and behavioral problems. Internal consistency of the sample and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) (Arabic version) were measured by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The percentages of children whose scores are in the normal, borderline, and abnormal classes were calculated. The results indicate that regarding the mental health of the children, 69.1% were considered positive overall (55% abnormal and 14.1% borderline). Correlation analysis on the item-subscale level revealed that all items had the highest correlations to their respective subscales of origin. Further, subscale-subscale and subscale-total correlations were calculated. The results show significant correlations between the five subscales of the SDQ. Each subscale correlated significantly (p < 0.01) with every other subscale. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to investigate the factorial structure of scales. A discriminant analysis was performed to classify the diabetic children into one of the three groups (Normal, borderline, and abnormal). The results show that 93.3% of the original grouped cases were correctly classified.

Keywords:
diabetes children psychology disorder Kuwait

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Goodman R., “The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, pp. 581-586, 1997.
 
[2]  Corathers SD, Kichler J, Jones NH, Houchen A, Jolly M, Morwessel N, Crawford P, Dolan LM, Hood KK. Improving depression screening for adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatrics.2013; 132(5): e1395-e1402
 
[3]  De Groot M. Depression and diabetes. In: Young-Hyman D, Peyrot M, editors. Psychosocial care for people with diabetes. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association; 2012. pp. 1–16.
 
[4]  Jaser SS. Psychological problems in adolescents with diabetes. Adolescent Medicine. 2010; 21: 138-151.
 
[5]  Kanner S, Hamrin V, Grey M. Depression in adolescents with diabetes. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing. 2003; 16(1): 15-24.
 
[6]  Maia AC, Braga-Ade A, Paes F, Machado S, Nardi AE, Silva AC. Psychiatric comorbidity in diabetes type 1: A cross-sectional observational study. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. 2014; 60(1): 59-62.
 
[7]  Roy T, Lloyd CE. Epidemiology of depression and diabetes: a systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2012; 142(Suppl): S8-S21.
 
[8]  Cury CR, Golfeto JH, “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): a study of school children in Ribeirao Preto”, Revista Brasilieira de Psiquiatr 25:139-145.
 
[9]  Goodman R., “Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire”. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 40: pp. 1337-1345, 2001.
 
[10]  Goodman R., Ford T, Simmons H, Gatward R, Meltzer H “Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child Psychiatric disorders in a community sample” Br J Psychiatry 177, pp. 534-539, 2000.
 
[11]  Goodman R., Renfrew D, Mullick M., “Predicting type of Psychiatric disorder from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores in child mental health clinics in London and Dhaka” Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 9: pp. 129-134, 2000.
 
[12]  Goodman, A. and Goodman R., “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as a Dimentional Measure of Child Mental Health” J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009, 48: 400-403.
 
[13]  Grey M, Whittemore R. and Tamborlane W., “Depression in Type I diabetes in children: natural history and correlates” J Psychosomat Res. 53, pp. 907-911, 2002.
 
[14]  Hawes, D. and Dadds, M., “Australian data and psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 38, pp. 644-651, 2004.
 
[15]  Kalsen, H., Woerner, W., Wolke, D., Meyer, R., Overmeyer, S., Kaschnitz, W., Rothenberger, A., and Goodman, R., “Comparing the German Versions of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Deu) and the Child Behavior Checklist” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol.9, No. 4, pp. 271-276, 2000.
 
[16]  Mullick, M. and Goodman, R. “Questionnaire screening for mental health problems in Bangladeshi children: a preliminary study” Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, Vol. 36, pp. 94-99, 2001
 
[17]  Smedje, H., Broman, JE., Hetta, J., and Knorring, AI., “Psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 8, pp. 63-70, 1999.
 
[18]  Woerner, W., Fleitlich-Bilyk, B., Martinussen, R., Fletcher, J., Cucchiaro, G., Dalgalarrondo, P., Lui, M., and Tannock, R., “ The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire overseas: Evaluations and applications of the SDQ beyond Europe” Eur Child & Adolesc Psychiatry, Vol. 13, Supplement 2: pp. 47-54, 2004.
 
[19]  Woerner W, Becker A, Rothenberger A: Normative data and scale properties of the German parent SDQ. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004, 13 Suppl 2: II3-10.
 
[20]  Woerner W, Becker A, Rothenberger A: Normative data and scale properties of the German parent SDQ. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004, 13 Suppl 2: II3-10.
 
[21]  Goodman R, Meltzer H, Bailey V: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: a pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1998, 7: 125-130.
 
[22]  van Widenfelt BM, Goedhart AW, Treffers PD, Goodman R: Dutch version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003, 12: 281-289.
 
[23]  Malmberg M, Rydell AM, Smedje H: Validity of the Swedish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Swe). Nord J Psychiatry. 2003, 57: 357-363.
 
[24]  Ronning JA, Handegaard BH, Sourander A, Morch WT: The Strengths and Difficulties Self-Report Questionnaire as a screening instrument in Norwegian community samples. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004, 13: 73-82.
 
[25]  Obel C, Heiervang E, Rodriguez A, Heyerdahl S, Smedje H, Sourander A, Guethmundsson OO, Clench-Aas J, Christensen E, Heian F, Mathiesen KS, Magnusson P, Njarethvik U, Koskelainen M, Ronning JA, Stormark KM, Olsen J: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004, 13 Suppl 2: II32-II39.
 
[26]  Marzocchi GM, Capron C, Di Pietro M, Duran TE, Duyme M, Frigerio A, Gaspar MF, Hamilton H, Pithon G, Simoes A, Therond C: The use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Southern European countries. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004, 13 Suppl 2: II40-II46.
 
[27]  Dickey WC, Blumberg SJ: Revisiting the factor structure of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire: United States, 2001. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004, 43: 1159-1167.
 
[28]  Bourdon KH, Goodman R, Rae DS, Simpson G, Koretz DS: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: U.S. normative data and psychometric properties. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2005, 44: 557-564.
 
[29]  Palmieri PA, Smith GC: Examining the structural validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a U.S. sample of custodial grandmothers. Psychol Assess. 2007, 19: 189-198.
 
[30]  Mathai J, Anderson P, Bourne A: Comparing psychiatric diagnoses generated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire with diagnoses made by clinicians. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2004, 38: 639-643.
 
[31]  Almaqrami MH, Shuwail AY: Validity of the self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire in Yemen. Saudi Med J. 2004, 25: 592-601.
 
[32]  Alyahri A, Goodman R: Validation of the Arabic Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Development and Well-Being Assessment. East Mediterr Health J. 2006, 12 Suppl 2: S138-S146.
 
[33]  Samad L, Hollis C, Prince M, Goodman R: Child and adolescent psychopathology in a developing country: testing the validity of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (Urdu version). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2005, 14: 158-166.
 
[34]  Koskelainen, M., Sourander, A., and Kaljonen, A., “The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish school-aged children and adolescents” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry” Vol. 9, pp.277-284, 2000.
 
[35]  Michelle M. Garrison, Wayne J. Katon and Laura P. Richardson, “The Impact of Psychiatric Comorbidities on Readmissions for Diabetes in Youth” Diabetes Care, Vol. 28, 9, pp. 2150-2154, 2005.
 
[36]  Murris, P., Meesters, C., and Van den Berg, F., “The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Further evidence for its reliability and validity in a community sample of Dutch children and adolescents” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1-8, 2003.
 
[37]  Hirsh, H., Coen, M.H., Mozer, M.C., Hasha, R. and Flanagan, J.L, “Room service, AI-style,” IEEE intelligent systems, 14 (2). 8-19. Jul.2002.
 
[38]  T. Eckes, The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender, Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000. [E-book] Available: netLibrary e-book.