American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN (Print): 2328-7306 ISSN (Online): 2328-7292 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ajams Editor-in-chief: Mohamed Seddeek
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. 2014, 2(6), 402-408
DOI: 10.12691/ajams-2-6-8
Open AccessMeta-Analysis

Trend and Levels of Women Empowerment in Nigeria

ACHA, CHIGOZIE KELECHI1,

1DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS, MICHEAL OKPARA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, UMUDIKE, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

Pub. Date: December 15, 2014

Cite this paper:
ACHA, CHIGOZIE KELECHI. Trend and Levels of Women Empowerment in Nigeria. American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. 2014; 2(6):402-408. doi: 10.12691/ajams-2-6-8

Abstract

Women empowerment has become major factor in economic development and is increasingly at the core of countries’ competitiveness in the global economy. The main objective of this paper is to ascertain the trend and level of women empowerment in Nigeria by 2015. Secondary data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), Nigeria Demographic and Education Survey (NDES), and National Population Commission (NPC) were used. Employment, education and literacy rate were adopted as measures of women empowerment. An overview of the relationship between women’s level of education and other background characteristics was carried out. The results showed that men are more likely than women to have some education. Over 40 percent of men are literate compared to 13 percent of women, which is similar to the results obtained from variables like occupation, agriculture, etc. Employment is one source of empowerment for women but unfortunately it is difficult to measure their employment status because the informal sectors are not reported. However, the data on hand indicates, for instance, that women and men currently employed in the North West are 46 and 54 percent respectively. Also, the employment rate of men and women in urban area are of the ratio 42:37 percent while the employment ratio of men to women in the rural area is 63:58. The study also hints that employment, education and literacy rate of women are strong determinants of economic growth and they should not be neglected as the nation works toward attaining vision 2020 goals.

Keywords:
education employment empowerment equality economy

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Acha, C. K. “Women empowerment as a measure of good governance in Nigeria”, International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 5 (2): 167-173, Jun. 2009.
 
[2]  Aderant, I. A. “Situation Analysis of the Status of Women in Nigeria,” Concept Publications, Lagos, Apr. 2002.
 
[3]  Anderson, D., Vinnicombe, S., & Singh, V, “Women only leadership development: A conundrum”. In K.T. James, & J. Collins (Eds.), Leadership learning: Knowledge into action London, Palgrave Macmillan, 147-161, Apr. 2008.
 
[4]  Annekova, V. “Global Approach to Fostering Development of Women Entrepreneurship”, FSA Contemporary Issues, IREX,. Jan. 2001.
 
[5]  Arene, C. J. “Comparative economics of maize and rice production among resource-poor farmers in Anambra state of Nigeria”. African Development Review 4 (1): 102-13, Sep. 1992.
 
[6]  Ayu, A. “The Teacher Factor in falling standard of Education in Nigeria” Farfaru Journal of Multi-Disciplinary studies, 1 (2) 235-239, Jun. (1991).
 
[7]  Ayu, H.I. “Women and Agriculture in Nigeria: An Analysis of Government Policies and Implementation of Programmes. Centre for Development Studies. University of Jos, 5 (3), Mar. 1992.
 
[8]  Bilimoria, D., & Liang, X. “Gender equity in science and engineering: Advancing change in higher education. New York, NY: Routledge. Jan. 2012.
 
[9]  Burke, R. J. & Major, D. A. “Gender in organizations: Are men allies or adversaries to women’s career advancement? Northampton”, MA: Edward Elgar, May, 2014.
 
[10]  Damilola Taiye Agbalajobi “Women’s participation and the political process in Nigeria: Problems and prospects: Problems and prospects” African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 4 (2), 075-082, Feb. 2010.
 
[11]  Debebe, G. “Creating a safe environment for women's leadership transformation”. Journal
 
[12]  Debebe. G., & Reinert, K.A. “Leading with our whole selves: A multiple identity approach to leadership development”. In M. Miville & A. Ferguson (Eds.), Handbook on race-ethnicity and gender in psychology, 271-293, Nov. 2014. New York, NY: Springer.
 
[13]  Ekundayo, A., & Ama, B. “Nigerian Women and Political Participation: The Way Forward” International Journal of Educational Foundations and Management, 2 (1), 71-81, Mar. 2014.
 
[14]  Ely, R. J., Ibarra, H., & Kolb, D.M. “Taking gender into account: Theory and design for women’s leadership programs”. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 10, 474-493, Oct. 2011. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amle.2010.0046
 
[15]  Hopkins, M.M., O’Neil, D., Passarelli, A., & Bilimoria, D. “Women’s leadership development: Strategic practices for women in organizations”. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 60, 348-365, 2008.
 
[16]  Iheduru, N. G “Women Entrepreneurship and Development: The Gendering of Microfinance in Nigeria”, Paper Presented at the 8th International Interdisciplinary Congress on at Makeree University, Kampala-Uganda Women, p. 21-26, Mar, 2002.
 
[17]  Jarvis, C. Gulati, A., Mcririck, V., & Simpson, P. “Leadership matters: Tensions in evaluating leadership development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 15, 27-45, Jun. 2013.
 
[18]  Lewis, P. “The Quest for Invisibility: Female Entrepreneurs and the Masculine Norm of Entrepreneurship”, Gender Work and Organization, 13 (5): 453-469, Jul. 2006.
 
[19]  Mansor, N., Women in Business: Determinants for Venturing in Malaysians SMEs, 2005. [Online]. Available: http://www.tbs.ubbc/uj.ro/studia/articol/volume4/number2/ [Accessed Nov. 1, 2014].
 
[20]  Mazrui, A. “The Black Woman and the Problem of Gender: Trials, Triumphs and Challenges”, Lagos Guardian Lecture series Publications, Lagos, Nigeria. 3 (2), 1-20, Jul. 1991.
 
[21]  Nigeria Demographic and Education Survey (2004); from Nigeria demographic and health survey 2003. Abuja; National population commission
 
[22]  Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey Abuja; National Population Commission, 2008.
 
[23]  Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Abuja; National population commission 2003.
 
[24]  Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Abuja; National population commission, 2011.
 
[25]  Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Abuja; National population commission, 2013.
 
[26]  Nigeria Population Census. Abuja; National Population Commission, 1991.
 
[27]  Nigeria Population Census. Abuja; National Population Commission, 2006.
 
[28]  Nigeria Sentinel Survey. Abuja; National Population Commission, 2007.
 
[29]  of Management Education, 35, 679-712, Jun. 2011.
 
[30]  [Online] Available: http://www.onlinenigeria.com/volume4/number2/Arene (1993) [Accessed Nov. 1, 2014].
 
[31]  [Online] Available: http://www.onlinenigeria.com /volume4/number2/Wushish (1993) [Accessed Nov. 1, 2014].
 
[32]  Peters, A.A. “Population and Human Resource Development in Nigeria”. A paper presented to Course 19 participants at the National Defence College, Abuja, 2010.
 
[33]  Peters, A.A. “Population and Human Resource Development in Nigeria”. A paper presented to Course 20 participants at the National Defence College, Abuja, 2011.