American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics
ISSN (Print): 2328-7306 ISSN (Online): 2328-7292 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohamed Seddeek
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. 2021, 9(2), 57-65
DOI: 10.12691/ajams-9-2-4
Open AccessArticle

Post Hoc Analysis of Life Expectancy in West Africa

Jonathan Iworiso1,

1Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Essex, United Kingdom

Pub. Date: July 14, 2021

Cite this paper:
Jonathan Iworiso. Post Hoc Analysis of Life Expectancy in West Africa. American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics. 2021; 9(2):57-65. doi: 10.12691/ajams-9-2-4


This paper investigates the effect of country, gender and the associated interaction term on life expectancy in West African countries. The empirical analysis revealed that country and gender have statistically significant effect on life expectancy in West Africa, while the associated interaction term has no significant effect on life expectancy. Thus the removal of the nuisance interaction term seems to improve the predictive task of the statistical model. The empirical findings in this paper revealed that Cape Verde has the highest average life expectancy among all the West African countries, which also ranks highest in the United Nations index of West Africa. The Tukey HSD tests provide statistically significant differences between countries with higher life expectancy and countries with lower life expectancy. This accounts for the variation in life expectancy between the West African countries. Contrary to the notion in some previous reports which believed that countries with higher GDP tend to have a higher life expectancy, and that the difference in life expectancy per difference in GDP per capita is higher for poorer than for richer countries; this paper reveals that most West African countries endowed with natural resources resulting to higher GDP tend to have lower life expectancy.

life expectancy statistical model interaction main effects Tukey HSD tests

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Olalere S Sunday, Babatola M Adeleye, et al. An Empirical Analysis of Public Health Expenditure on Life Expectancy: Evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, pages 1-17, 2017.
[2]  Chigozie Nelson Nkalu and Richardson Kojo Edeme. Environmental Hazards and Life Expectancy in Africa: Evidence from GARCH Model. SAGE Open, 9(1): 2158244019830500, 2019.
[3]  Jacob Novignon, Solomon A Olakojo, and Justice Nonvignon. The Effects of Public and Private Health Care Expenditure on Health Status in Sub-Saharan Africa: New Evidence from Panel Data Analysis. Health economics review, 2(1): 22, 2012.
[4]  AB Dey. World Report on Ageing and Health. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 145(1):150, 2017.
[5]  Adrian Raine, Jianghong Liu, Peter H Venables, Sarnoff A Mednick, and C Dalais. Cohort Profile: The Mauritius Child Health Project. International Journal of Epidemiology, 39(6): 1441-1451, 2010.
[6]  F Desmond McCarthy and Holger Wolf. Comparative Life Expectancy in Africa. The World Bank, 1999.
[7]  Pum Chuhan-Pole and Manka Angwafo. Yes, Africa Can: Success Stories from a Dynamic Continent. The World Bank, 2011.
[8]  Wim NaudeĀ“. Development Progress in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa. Achieving development success: Strategies and lessons from the developing world, pages 284-292, 2013.
[9]  Richardson Kojo Edeme, Chisom Emecheta, and Mary Ogechi Omeje. Public Health Expenditure and Health Outcomes in Nigeria. American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences, 5(5): 96-102, 2017.
[10]  Peter I Sede and Williams Ohemeng. Socio-Economic Determinants of Life Expectancy in Nigeria (1980-2011). Health economics review, 5(1): 2, 2015.
[11]  JO Yaqub, TV Ojapinwa, and RO Yussuff. Public Health Expenditure and Health Outcome in Nigeria: The Impact of Governance. 2012.
[12]  Anthony O Agu, Sunday Virtus Agu, and Ifeoma C Onwuteaka. Food Poverty in Nigeria: Implications for Life Expectancy. 2020.
[13]  Muhammad Shahbaz, Muhammad Shafiullah, and Mantu K Mahalik. The Dynamics of Financial Development, Globalisation, Economic Growth and Life Expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Australian Economic Papers, 58(4): 444-479, 2019.
[14]  Wolfgang Terbeck, P Laurie Davies, et al. Interactions and Outliers in the Two- Way Analysis of Variance. The Annals of Statistics, 26(4): 1279-1305, 1998.
[15]  M Kharrati-Kopaei and SM Sadooghi-Alvandi. A New Method for Testing Interaction in Unreplicated Two-Way Analysis of Variance. Communications in Statistics Theory and Methods, 36(15): 2787-2803, 2007.
[16]  Leo A Goodman and Shelby J Haberman. The Analysis of Nonadditivity in Two-Way Analysis of Variance. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 85(409):139-145, 1990.
[17]  Rudolf N Cardinal and Michael RF Aitken. ANOVA for the Behavioral Sciences Researcher. Psychology Press, 2013.
[18]  Mary L McHugh. Multiple Comparison Analysis Testing in ANOVA. Biochemia medica: Biochemia medica, 21(3): 203-209, 2011.
[19]  CHEN Tian, XU Manfei, TU Justin, WANG Hongyue, and NIU Xiaohui. Relationship between Omnibus and Post-Hoc Tests: An Investigation of Performance of the F Test in ANOVA. Shanghai archives of psychiatry, 30(1): 60, 2018.
[20]  Ugur Kucuk, Mehmet Eyuboglu, Hilal Olgun Kucuk, and Gokhan Degirmencioglu. Importance of Using Proper Post Hoc Test with ANOVA. International Journal of Cardiology, 209: 346, 2016.