Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/aees Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2018, 6(1), 1-5
DOI: 10.12691/aees-6-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Growth and Nodulation of Centrosema pubescens Benth (Butterfly Pea) in Soils of High Copper Levels in the Humid Zone of Nigeria

Emmanuel Nzegbule1, , Amarachi Queen Ijoma1 and Macanthony Chukwuka Onyema2

1Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

2Department of Forestry and Wildlife Technology, Federal University of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: January 05, 2018

Cite this paper:
Emmanuel Nzegbule, Amarachi Queen Ijoma and Macanthony Chukwuka Onyema. Growth and Nodulation of Centrosema pubescens Benth (Butterfly Pea) in Soils of High Copper Levels in the Humid Zone of Nigeria. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2018; 6(1):1-5. doi: 10.12691/aees-6-1-1

Abstract

Some farming operations contribute to heavy metal toxicity of the soil which in turn affects above ground vegetation. Soils collected from cocoa and Gmelina arborea plantations were separately used for raising Centrosema pubescens in three pots (A, B and C) in Nigeria. The cocoa plantation soil was contaminated as result of use of Cu-based fungicide. Pot A had 5kg of soil with copper-contaminated soil while Pot B was same as Pot A above but amended with poultry manure using 2:1; representing media with moderate toxicity. Similarly, Pot C or the control contained soil obtained from a nearby Gmelina plantation 200m from the cocoa plantation. C. pubescens seedlings were raised in nursery for 4 weeks and planted out into the pots. Growth parameters (leaf number and total dry weight (g)) and chemical composition of biomass (N, P, K, Fe, Cu, Pb) were determined and compared using ANOVA at @<0.05. Root nodulation was highest in Centrosema stands grown with control soil and was 260% higher than that of Cu contaminated soil (A). Both mean leaf number per plant and total dry weight (g) were highest in stands grown with Cu contaminated soil amended with poultry manure indicating possible suppression of Cu-toxicity by the manure. Cu- soil contamination affected the level of macronutrients (N, P, K) uptake especially in Pots A and B. N.P.K in Centrosema samples grown with control soils C were significantly higher than those of “A” by 48.3%, 61.4% and 66.5% respectively. Although toxicants have potential of being transmitted to man/livestock, C. pubescens showed relatively high absorption capacity for toxic elements which can enhance its choice for possible use in land clean-up and phytoremediation programme.

Keywords:
copper toxicity legume nodulation biomass formation mineral uptake phytoremediation

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Kabata-Pendias, A. and Pendias, H. Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC, London 2001.
 
[2]  Goyer, R. A. Lead toxicity: current concerns. Environmental Health Prospects, 100: 177-187. 1993.
 
[3]  Tchounwou, P. B., Yedjou, C. G., Patlolla A. K. and Sutton, D. J. Heavy metals toxicity and the Environment. Natural Institute of Health, 101: 133-164. 2012.
 
[4]  World Economic and Social Survey. Sustainable Development Challenges. Department of Economic and Social Affairs E/2013/50/Rev.1 ST/ESA/344. New York, United Nations. 2013. 181pp
 
[5]  Nworgu F.C. and Fasogbon, F. O. Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as protein supplement for pullet chicks and growing pullets. International Journal of Poultry Science 6 (4): 255-260. 2007.
 
[6]  Ahmad, E., Zaidi, M., Khan, M. S. and Oves, M. Heavy Metal Toxicity to Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Microorganism and Host Legumes. Toxicity of Heavy metals to Legumes and Bioremediation: In Zaidi, A; Wani, P.A.; Khan, M.S. (Eds.) Springer UK 248p. 2012.
 
[7]  Loska, K. and Wiechva, D. Application of Principal Component Analysis for the Estimation of Source of Heavy Metal Contamination in Surface Sediments from the Rybnik Reservoir. Chemosphere 51: 723-733, 2003.
 
[8]  Anjum, N. A., Umar, S. and S. Igbal, S. Assessment of cadmium accumulation, toxicity and tolerance in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae plants – Implications for phytoremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res. Int 21(17): 10286-10293. 2014.
 
[9]  Horne, P. M., Stur, W. W. Phengsavannh, P. Gabunada, F. and Rootheart, R.. New forages for smallholder livestock systems in southeast Asia. Recent Development, Impacts and Opportunities. Grasslands, Future Perspectives. Rome. 22pp. 2004.
 
[10]  Steinfeld, H. Livestock production in the Asia and Pacific region- current status, issues and trends. World Anima Review 90: 14-21. 1998.
 
[11]  Nigerian Environmental Study Action Team (NEST). The challenge of sustainable development in Nigeria. Aina, T. A. and A. T. Salau. (eds.) Nigeria Environmental Study/Action Team. 1991, pp. 151-171.
 
[12]  Uzuomfor, M. K. An assessment of leguminous plants (Centrosema pubescens) as feed additive for growth stimulation on broilers. International Scholars Journals 3 (3): 281-283. 2015.
 
[13]  Asawalam, D. and Ugochukwu, O. 2009. Effects of some local mining materials and organic manure on some soil chemical properties and growth of maize. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science 19 (2). 6-10
 
[14]  Ezeh, C. I., Onwuka, O. W. and Nwachukwu, I. N. Correlates of inorganic fertilizer consumption among smallholder farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research 8 (1): 62-69. 2008.
 
[15]  Nzegbule, E.C. Assessment of copper levels in the soil and vegetation following repeated application of bordeaux mixture to a cocoa plantation in southeastern Nigeria, The Nigerian Agricultural Journal Vol. 34. 97-102, 2003.
 
[16]  Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official method of analysis. 15th Edition, Washington DC, USA. 1990
 
[17]  Enwezor, W. O., Ohiri, A. C. Opuwaribo, E. E. and Udo, E. J. A review of fertilizer use on crops in southeastern zone of Nigeria. In: FPDD. 1990. Literature review on soil fertility investigation in Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development, Lagos. 69pp. 1988.
 
[18]  Hardy, D. H., Tucker, M. R. M. R., Messick, M. R. and Stokes, C. Crop nutrient sufficiency levels. North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Understanding the Soil. In: M. C. Onyema. 2006. Survey of ecological indicators of selected areas with different forms of land degradation in southeastern Nigeria. M.Sc Thesis. Department of Forestry and Environmental Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria. 89pp. 2003.
 
[19]  Chibuike, G. U. and Obiora, S. C. Heavy metal polluted soils: effect on plants and bioremediation methods. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. Vol. 2.: 1-12. 2014
 
[20]  Nworgu, F. C. and Egbunike, C. Nutritive potentials of Centrosema pubescens, Mimosa invisa and Pueraria phaseoloides leaf meals on growth response of broiler chickens. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3 (3): 506-519. 2013.
 
[21]  Nzegbule, E. C., Onyema M. C. and Ndelekwute, S. C. Plant species richness and soil nutrients in a 35-year old cashew nut plantation in Isuochi, Southern Nigeria. Tropical Ecology 54 (2): 205-212. 2013.
 
[22]  Kvesitadze G, Khatisashvili G, Sadunishvili T, and Ramsden, J.J. Biochemical Mechanisms of Detoxification in Higher Plants. Berlin Haidelberg: Springer Verlag; 2006.
 
[23]  Żurek G., Pogrzeba, M., Rybka, K., Krzyżak, J. and Prokopiuk, K. The Effect of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil on Growth and Development of Perennial Grasses EDP Sciences, 2013.
 
[24]  Barajas-Aceves M, and Dendooven, L. Nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus mineralization in soils from semi-arid highlands of central Mexico amended with tannery sludge. Bioresour Technol 77:121-130, 2001.
 
[25]  Hernandez, L., Probst, A., Probst J.L. and Ulrich, E. Heavy metal distribution in some French forest soils: evidence for atmospheric contamination. Sci Total Environ 312:195-219, 2003.
 
[26]  Ane-Noe¨lle P., Fontaine, F. Vatsa, P., Christophe, C. and Vaillant-Gaveau, N. Fungicide Impacts on Photosynthesis in Crop Plants. Photosynth. Res. 111: 315-326. 2012.
 
[27]  Wang, Q. R., Liu, X. M., Cui, Y. S., Dong, Y. T., and Christie, P. Responses of legume and non-legume crop species to heavy metals in soils with multiple metal contamination. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engi, 37(4), 611-621, 2002.
 
[28]  Nzegbule, E.C. Amelioration of copper toxicity in an aged cocoa plantation in Bende District. Environment and Ecology. 25(2) 448-452. 2007.
 
[29]  Oliver, M.A. Soil and Human Health: A Review. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 1997, 48, 573-592
 
[30]  Murat, Y., Yozukmaz, A. and Sel. F. Heavy metal accumulation in the leaves, stem and root of the invasive submerged macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. (Haloragaceae): an example of Kadin creek (Mugla, Turkey). Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 57 (3): 434-440. 2014.