Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2013, 1(1), 10-13
DOI: 10.12691/aees-1-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Haematological Responses of Tilapia guineensis Treated with Industrial Effluents

O.A Akinrotimi1, , E.E. Orlu2 and U.U Gabriel3

1African Regional Aquaculture Centre, Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Environment, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Pub. Date: March 16, 2013

Cite this paper:
O.A Akinrotimi, E.E. Orlu and U.U Gabriel. Haematological Responses of Tilapia guineensis Treated with Industrial Effluents. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2013; 1(1):10-13. doi: 10.12691/aees-1-1-3


A total of 180 Tilapia guineensis (mean length 20.62cm±2.1SD and mean weight 150.28g±3.14SD) were exposed (10 fish per tank) to 0.00mlL-1 (control) 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5mL-1 industrial effluents in triplicates in plastic tanks under a static renewal condition for 15 days to determine the effect of the exposure on the haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), differential counts (neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes), thrombocytes and blood glucose. Exposure of T. guineensis to these toxicants, caused a concentration dependent significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the values of Hb, RBC, PCV, MCH, MCHC, lymphocytes and thrombocytes. However, there was a gradual increase in the values of WBC, MCV, neutrophils, monocytes and blood glucose as the concentration of the effluent increased. These alterations were more pronounced in the fish exposed to 0.30, 0.20 and 0.50m/L-1 of the effluents. Results from this study suggest that brief exposure of T. guinensis to industrial effluents could cause some level of stress as manifested by changes in the haematological parameters of fish under consideration.

haematology effluents tilapia acute toxicity aquatic population

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Ramona A. Biswas AK. Kundu S. Saha JK. Yadav RBR (2001) Efficacy of distillery effluent on seed germination and seedling growth in mustard cauliflower and radish Proc. Nat Acad Sci. India, 71(b11): 129 -135.
[2]  Chezhien A. Kabilan N. Suresh Kumar T. Senthanol-Selvan D and Sivakumari K (2010) Impact of common mixed effluent of sipcot industrial estate on histopathological and biochemical changes in estuaries fish Lates calcrifer Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 2(3): 201-209.
[3]  Yadav A Neraliy S and Singh R (2005) effect of fertilizer industrial effluent in the behaviour and morphology of fresh water cat fish. Heteropenenstes fossils (Bluch). Department of Zoology, University of Aloghbord, India.
[4]  Gabriel U.U. Ezeri GNO. Ikeme PM and Ikwul EF (2006) Haematoxicity of proxure to juvenile Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) under laboratory conditions. Poll. Res. 25(2): 1-6.
[5]  Akinrotimi, O.A and Nte, M.E. (2012). Changes in electrolytes in selected organs of black chin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron) treated with industrial effluent. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 1(1):25-30.
[6]  Gabriel UU. Amakiri EU and Ezeri GNO (2007) Haematology and gill pathology of Clarias gariepinus exposed to refined petroleum kerosene under laboratory conditions. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6(3): 461-465.
[7]  Alwan, SF Hadi AA and Sholer AE (2009) Alternations in haematological parameters of fresh water fish Tilapia zilli exposed to aluminum. 3 (1): 12-19.
[8]  Suvetha L Ramesh M Saravana M (2010) Influence of cypermethrin toxicity on ionic regulation and gill Na+/K+ - ATPase activity of a freshwater teleost fish Cyprinus carpio. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 29:44-49.
[9]  Musa SO and Omoregie E (1999) Haematological changes in the mud fish Clarias gariepinus exposed to malachite green J. Aquatic Sc. 14:37-42.
[10]  Svobodava Z Luskova V Drastichova J. Svoboda M Zlabek V (2003) Effects of deltamethrin on haematological indices of common carp Cyprinus carpio Acta Vet. Brino. 72: 79-85.
[11]  Akinrotimi, O.A, Uedeme-Naa, B. and Agokei, E.O. (2010). Effects of acclimation on haematological parameter of Tilapia guineensis Science World Journal 5(4):1-4.
[12]  Yaji AJ and Auta J (2007) Sublethal effects of monocrotophos on some haematological indices of African catfish Clarias gariepinus J. Fish Int. 2(1) 115-117.
[13]  APHA (1998) Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water American Public Health Association. 874pp.
[14]  Blaxhall, PC and Daisley KW (1973) Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood J. Fish. Biol. 5: 771-781.
[15]  Rusia V and Sood SK (1992) Routine haematological test In: Medical laboratory technology Mukerjee, K.L. (ed) Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, 252-258.
[16]  Hesser EF (1960) Methods for routine on fish haematology. The progressive Fish Culturist 22: 164-171.
[17]  Seiverd CE (1964) Haematology for medical technologists. Lea and Febiger, Philadephia 946pp.
[18]  Trinder P (1969) Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with on alternative oxygen receptor. Ann Clin. Biochem. 6: 24-27.
[19]  Zar, J.H. (1996) Biostatistical Analysis Prentice-Hall, Eryelwood Cliffs, N.J. 663pp.
[20]  Akinrotimi OA Ansa EJ Owhonda KN Onunkwo DN Edun OM. Anyanwu PE. Opara JY and Cliffe PT (2007) Effects of transportation stress on haematological parameters of blackchin Tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron J. Animal Vet Serv. Adv 6(7): 8840-845.
[21]  Nte, M.D., Hart, A.I., Edun, O.M. and Akinrotimi, O.A. (2011). Alterations in Enzyme activities as a biomarker in black jaw tilapia (Sarotherondon melanatheron) exposed to industrial effluent. Cont. J. Biol. Sci. 4(2):37-44.
[22]  Adhikari S. Sarkar B. Chatterjee A. Mahapatra CT. And Ayyappan S (2004) Effects of Cypermethrin and carboforan on certain haematological parameters and prediction of their recovery in a fresh water teleost, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 58:220-226.
[23]  Ramesh M and Saravana, M (2010) Haematological and biochemical responses in a fresh water fish. Cyprinus carpio exposed to chlorpyrifos International Journal of Integrative Biology 3(1): 80-83.
[24]  Ajani, F. Olukunle OA and Agbedi SA (2007) Hormonal and haemotological responses of Clarias gariepinus to nitrite toxicity J. Fish Int. 2(1): 48-53.
[25]  Tiago SFH Ive MA. Iwana GK. Johnson SC. Moracs G. Afonson LOB (2008) Impairment of the stress response in matrinxa juvenile Brycon amazonicus exposed to low concentration of phenol Comparative Biochemistry and physiology Part C 147: 416-423.
[26]  Orturo J Esteban MA and Meeguer J (2001) Effects of short term crowding stress on the gilthead sreabream (Sparus avra L): Innate immune response. Fish and Shell Fish Immunology 11: 187-197.
[27]  Barton, B.A (2002) Stress in Fishes: A diversity of responses with particular references to changes in circulating conticusteroids. Integrative Comparative Biology 42: 517-524.