Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/aees Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2017, 5(1), 10-18
DOI: 10.12691/aees-5-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Identification of Saturated Hydrocarbons from Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) Buds Damaged by Blossom Midge, Contarinia maculipennis Felt through GC-MS Analysis

I. Merlin Kamala1, , C. Chinniah1, J.S. Kennedy2, M. Kalyanasundaram2 and M. Suganthy1

1Department of Agricultural Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Madurai, TamilNadu, India

2Department of Agricultural Entomology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Pub. Date: May 12, 2017

Cite this paper:
I. Merlin Kamala, C. Chinniah, J.S. Kennedy, M. Kalyanasundaram and M. Suganthy. Identification of Saturated Hydrocarbons from Jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) Buds Damaged by Blossom Midge, Contarinia maculipennis Felt through GC-MS Analysis. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2017; 5(1):10-18. doi: 10.12691/aees-5-1-2

Abstract

Saturated hydrocarbons of fresh healthy jasmine buds (Jasminum sambac L) and infested buds damaged by blossom midge, Contarinia maculipennis Felt. were identified through Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the saturated hydrocarbons. The results revealed that both the healthy and damaged buds had emitted hydrocarbon compounds numbering 24 and 34 respectively. The variation in the hydrocarbon constituents of healthy and damaged buds clearly depicts the emission of volatiles attracting beneficials witnessing tritrophic interactions in jasmine ecosystem. Linalool, the fragrant compound is detected in healthy jasmine buds at the retention time of 9.278 mins with the largest peak area of 5180722 mm2 and in midge damaged buds in a peak area of 288967 mm2, which might be the probable reason for the fragrance of jasmine flower. Allyl isothiocyanate, a compound responsible for plant defenses against herbivores is detected at a retention time of 4.306 mins recording the sixth largest peak area of 2461362 mm2 in midge infested buds. Other plant defense chemicals viz. naphthalene, azulene, methyl salicylate, methyl anthranilate, alpha farnescene, phenol, styrene etc. were also detected in midge damaged buds. The quality and quanity of these semiochemicals emitted by the buds might be the reason for attraction of natural enemies in the jasmine ecosystem there by further reducing the infestation of midge, as well as other pests. This feature can be exploited to enhance the efficacy of natural enemies in integrated management of jasmine pests.

Keywords:
semiochemicals synamones saturated hydrocarbons Hendecasis duplifascialis GC-MS jasmine

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Ahmad, F., M. Aslam and M. Razaq. 2004. Chemical ecology of insects and tritrophic interactions. Journal of Research Science., 15: 181-190.
 
[2]  Cockayne, S.E., and D.J. Gawkrodger. 1997. Occupational contact dermatitis in an aromatherapist. Contact Dermatitis., 37: 306-307.
 
[3]  De Groot. A.C., and S. Frosch. 1987. Contact allergy to cosmetics: causative ingredients. Cont. Derm., 17: 26-34. 63.
 
[4]  De Groot, A.C., P.J. Coenraads, D.P. Bruynzeel, B.A. Jagtman, C.J.W. van-Ginkel, K. Noz, P.G.M. Van Der S. Pavel, J. Vink and J.W. Weyland. 2000. Routine patch testing with fragrance chemicals in The Netherlands. Cont. Derm., 42: 184-185.
 
[5]  Du, Y.J., G. M. Poppy, W. Powell, J. A. Pickett. L. J. Wadhams, C. M. Woodcocks. 1998. Identification of semiochemicals released during aphid feeding that attract parasitoid, Aphidius ervi., J. Ecol., 24: 1355-1365.
 
[6]  Gunasekaran, V. 1989. Studies on bio-ecology of jasmine pest complex. M. Sc (Ag.) Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agric. University, Coimbatore.
 
[7]  Kesseler, A., and I.T. Baldwin. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science., 291: 2141-2144.
 
[8]  Kumar, A., A. Zayeem and S. Kanameni.2012. Synamonal effect of cole crops of individual and associative learning behavior of Cotesia plutellae. International Journal of biology., Pharmacy and AlliedSciences (IJBPAS) 1: 285-298.
 
[9]  Hilker, M., and T.Meiners.2006. Early herbivore alert: insect eggs induce plant defense. Journal of chemical Ecology., 32: 1379-1397.
 
[10]  Malinger, R.E., D.B. Hogg and C. Horton.2011. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems. J. Eco. Ento., 104(1): 115-124.
 
[11]  Pare, P.W., and J.H.Tumilson.1997. Denova biosynthesis of volatiles induced by insect herbivory in cotton plants. Plant. Physiol., 114: 1161-1167.
 
[12]  Paul, A.V.N. Srivastava, M., P.Dureja and A.K.Singh. 2008. Semiochemicals produced by tomato varieties and their role in parasitism of Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: pyralidae) by the egg parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). International Journal of Tropical Insect Science., 28: 10-116.
 
[13]  Peshwin, R., and D. Pimental. 2014. Integrated pest Management: Experiences with Implementation. Vol 4. Springer publication.
 
[14]  Prakash, K and B. Muniyandi. 2014. Application of ARIMA Model for Forecasting Production of Jasmine Flower in Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, India. American International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences., 6(3): 279-285.
 
[15]  Rathika, M. and R. Nalini. 2011. Role of rice plant volatiles on the orientation of leaf folder larval parasitoids Trichomma cnaphalocroccis Uchida and Cotesia angustibasis Gahan. Oryza-An International Journal of Rice., 48(3): 250-254.
 
[16]  Romanowski, F., and H. Klenk.2005. “Thiocyanates and Isothiocyanates, Organic”, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.
 
[17]  Schaller, M., and H.C. Korting. 1995. Allergic airborne contact dermatitis from essential oils used in aroma therapy. Clin. Exp. Dermatol., 20:143-145.
 
[18]  Seenivasagan, T. and A.V.N. Paul.2011. Gas chromatography and electroantennogram analysis of saturated hydrocarbons of cruciferous host plants and host larval body extracts of Plutella xylostella for behavioural manipulation of Cotesia plutellae. Indian Journal of Experimental biology., 49: 375-386.
 
[19]  Shoram, N.S. Parekh, N.V. Upadhyay, B. A. Karapatiya and H. C. Patel. 2012. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on vegetative growth and flower yield of Jasmine. The Asian Journal of Horticulture., 7(1):52-54.
 
[20]  Titayavan, M., and M.A. Altieri.1990. Synomone-mediated interactions between the parasitoid, Diaretiella rapae and Brevicoryne brassicae under field conditions. Entomophaga., 35(4): 499-507.
 
[21]  Wu, H., G.A. Zhang, S.Y. Zeng and K.C. Lin. 2009. Extraction of allylisothiocyanate from Radish (Armoracia rusticana) and its fumigant insecticidal activity on four stored product pests of paddy. Pest Manage. Sci., 65: 1003-1008.
 
[22]  Yuan, J. S., T. G. Kollner, G. Wiggins, J. Grant, N. Zhao, Z. Zhuang, Jorg Degenhardt and F. Chen. 1998. Elucidation of the genomic bases of indirect plant defense against insects. Plant signaling and behavior., 3(9): 720-721.
 
[23]  Zabża A. 1989. Chemiczne podstawy oddziaływania roslina-owad. Kosmos, 36(1): 155-177.