Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2015, 3(1), 1-4
DOI: 10.12691/aees-3-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Performance Evaluation of Prevailing Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems in West Bengal, India

Dipu Sukumaran1, , Rita Saha1 and Rakesh Chandra Saxena1

1Central Pollution Control Board, Southend Conclave, 502 Block, 1582 Rajdanga Main Road, Kolkata

Pub. Date: January 13, 2015

Cite this paper:
Dipu Sukumaran, Rita Saha and Rakesh Chandra Saxena. Performance Evaluation of Prevailing Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems in West Bengal, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2015; 3(1):1-4. doi: 10.12691/aees-3-1-1


The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the performance of wastewater treatment systems (WWTS) in three different districts (Kolkata, Howra and Hugli) in West Bengal, India. Performance of these wastewater treatment plants are essential parameter to be monitored as the treated effluent is discharged into River Ganga which is the National River of India. The performance evaluation will also help for the better understanding of design and operating difficulties in wastewater treatment plants. The performance evaluation was done on the basis of removal efficiency of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Coliform (TC) and Fecal Coliform (FC). The performance of prevailing oxidation pond and activated sludge process type was good in terms of BOD, COD and TSS removal. Even though the removal efficiency of total and fecal coliform was high (85-98%), none of the plants meet the coliform discharge standards because of the high incoming TC and FC.

Activated sludge process Oxidation pond Coliform wastewater treatment

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Prachi N.W., Sameer, U.S., 2014. Performance Evaluation of 25MLD Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) at Kalyan, American Journal of Engineering Research 3 (3), 310-316.
[2]  Vandeweerd, V., Cheatle, M., Henricksen, B., Schomaker, M., Seki, M. and Zahedi, K., 1997. Global Environment Outlook (GEO), UNEP Global State of Environment Report, 121-132.
[3]  Jamrah, A.I., 1999. Assessment of Characteristics and Biological Treatment Technologies of Jordanian Wastewater, Bioprocess Engineering, 21, 331-340.
[4]  Arar, A., 1988. Background to Treatment and Use of Sewage Effluent, Butterworths, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK.
[5]  Bansal, A.K., Mitra, A., Arora, R.P., Gupta, T. and Singhvi, B.S.M., 2007. Biological treatment of domestic wastewater for aquaculture, J. Agri. Bio. Sci., 2, 6-12.
[6]  CPHEEO, 1993. Manual on sewerage and sewage treatment (2nd ed.). Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, New Delhi: Ministry of Urban Development.
[7]  Mohammed A. I., Hayder T.H., 2013. Stabilization pond for wastewater treatment. European Scientific Journal, 9 (14), 278
[8]  Duncan, M. 2003. Domestic wastewater treatment in developing countries, UK, Cromwell Press.
[9]  Khambete, A.K., Christian R.A., 2014. Ranking Sewage Treatment Plants with the Application of Fuzzy Composite Programming. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology, 3 (2), 116-120.
[10]  Metcalf and Eddy, (2005), Wastewater Engineering - Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, 5th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
[11]  Colmenarejo, M. F., Rubio, A., Sanchez, E., Vicente, J., Gracia, M. G. and Bojra, R., 2006. Evaluation of municipal wastewater treatment plants with different technologies at Las-Rozas, Madrid (Spain). J. Environmental Management, 81(4), 339-404.
[12]  McGhee, T., 1991. Water Supply and Sewerage, McGraw-Hill International Editions, 6th edition, New York.
[13]  Bouwer, H., 1978. Groundwater Hydrology, McGraw-Hill Company, New York. 480.
[14]  Sincero, A.P. and Sincero, G.A., 1996. Environmental Engineering: A Design Approach, 4th edition, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
[15]  APHA, 2005. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st Edn, American Public Health Association, Washington.
[16]  Markantonatos, G.P., 1990. Treatment and disposal of wastewater, Athens, Greek.
[17]  Abdallaa, K.Z. and Hammamb, G., 2014. Correlation between Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Various Wastewater Treatment Plants in Egypt to Obtain the Biodegradability Indices. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research 13 (1), 42.
[18]  Agunwamba, J.C., 2001. Waste engineering and management tools. Enugu, Nigeria: Immaculate Publications Ltd.
[19]  Svabodova, Z., Lloyd, R. and Jana, M., 1993. Water Quality and Fish Health (European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission (EIFAC), United Nations: Food and Agricultural Organization.
[20]  Lloyd, B.I., Leaner, A.R., Vorkas, C.A. and Gugnesharajah, R.K., 2003. Underperformance evaluation and rehabilitation strategy for waste stabilization ponds in Mexico, Water Science and Technology 48 (2), 35-43.
[21]  Nweze, N.O. and Chumboh, G.F., 2006. Physical and chemical characteristics, algal flora and coliform content of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka sewage treatment plant oxidation pond, Nigerian Journal of Botany, 19 (1), 103-116.
[22]  WHO, 2006. Guidelines of drinking water quality Recommendation: the 3rd edition. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 2nd ed.
[23]  Mahassen, M.E.G., Waled, M.S., Azza, M.A. and Mohammed, K., 2008. Performance evaluation of a waste stabilization pond in a rural area in Eygpt, American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4 (4), 316-326.
[24]  Mara D., 1997. Design manual for waste stabilization ponds in India (United Kingdom: Leeds Lagoon Technology International.