Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(8), 735-743
DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-8-4
Open AccessArticle

Lead Nitrate Induced Acute Toxicity in the Freshwater Fishes Channa punctatus and Heteropneustes Fossilis

Shahla Nigar1, Neelima Gupta1, 2, , Abha Trivedi1 and Varsha Gupta3

1Centre of Excellence Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, India

2TM Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India

3Department of Life Sciences, Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University, Kanpur 208024, UP India

Pub. Date: August 12, 2021

Cite this paper:
Shahla Nigar, Neelima Gupta, Abha Trivedi and Varsha Gupta. Lead Nitrate Induced Acute Toxicity in the Freshwater Fishes Channa punctatus and Heteropneustes Fossilis. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021; 9(8):735-743. doi: 10.12691/aees-9-8-4


Heavy metal pollution in aquatic bodies has become a matter of great concern. This study examined the acute toxicity of lead nitrate to the freshwater fishes Channa punctatus and Heteropneustes fossilis. They comprise an important link in the food chain, and defilement by heavy metal produces an imbalance in the aquatic environment and other fauna. The fishes were exposed to different concentrations of lead nitrate, and % mortality was recorded during 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. The lethal concentration (LC50) value of lead nitrate for 96 hours against C. punctatus and H. fossilis were found 158.171 and 280.074 mg/l, respectively, using the Probit analysis statistical method. The mortality of the fish was directly proportional to the concentration. The results indicated that a lower concentration of lead was highly toxic to C. punctatus than H. fossilis. Assessment of LC50 also revealed that the amount of lead present in freshwater might be lethal to all the aquatic fauna. Exposure to lead affected human health, which accounted for the death of 1.06 million people and loss of healthy life, amounting to nearly 24.4 million. Hence, strict regulations should be imposed to dispose of heavy metals in aquatic bodies to conserve valuable biological diversity.

lead nitrate Channa punctatus Heteropneustes fossilis LC50 probit

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Javed, M. and Usmani, N, “An overview of the adverse effects of heavy metal contamination on fish health,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Biological Sciences, India, 389-403. 2019.
[2]  Bashir, I., Lone, F.A., Bhat, R.A., Mir, S.A., Dar, Z.A. and Dar, S. A, “Concerns and threats of contamination on aquatic ecosystems,” Bioremediation and Biotechnology: Sustainable Approaches to Pollution Degradation, 1-26. 2020.
[3]  Choudhary, J., Abha, M. and Jha, A.M, “Genotoxic testing of lead nitrate in air-breathing teleost Channa punctatus (Bloch),” International Journal of Plant Animal and Environmental Sciences, 2. 229-232. 2012.
[4]  Ali, H., Khan, E. and Ilahi, I, “Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology of hazardous heavy metals: Environmental persistence, toxicity, and bioaccumulation,” Journal of Chemistry. 2019.
[5]  USEPA, “Drinking Water Standards and Health Advisories,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water, EPA 822-F-18-001, Washington, DC. 2018.
[6]  EPA, “Reducing lead in drinking water,” Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health, Minnesota. 2018.
[7]  Neha, K., Shukla, D., Kumar, P., Bauddh, S., Tiwari, K., Dwivedi, J., Barman, N., Singh, S. and Kumar, N, “Metal distribution in the sediments, water and naturally occurring macrophytes in the river Gomti, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India,” Current Science, 113. 1578-1585. 2017.
[8]  Malik, D.S. and Maurya, P.K, “Heavy metal concentration in water, sediment and tissues of fish species (Heteropneustes fossilis and Puntius ticto) from Kali River, India,” Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 96(8). 1195-1206. 2015.
[9]  Manikandan, P., Shirlin, J.M. and Kalaiarasi, J.M.V, “Studies on the biochemical changes in fresh water fish, Channa punctatus exposed to the heavy metal toxicant lead nitrate,” International Journal of Novel Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6(5). 100-105. 2016.
[10]  Nigar, S., Gupta, N. and Shalaby, S.I, “Haematological indices of Channa punctatus as a bio-indicator assessing physiological status,” Bulletin of National Research Centre, 41(2). 49-61. 2017.
[11]  Luczynska, J., Paszczyk, B. and Luczynski, M.J, “Fish as a bioindicator of heavy metals pollution in aquatic ecosystem of Pluszne Lake, Poland, and risk assessment for consumer's health,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Saftey, 153. 60-67. 2018.
[12]  Ahmed, A.S.S., Sultana, S., Habib, A., Ullah, H., Musa, N., Hossain, M.B. et al, “Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in some commercially important fishes from a tropical river estuary suggests higher potential health risk in children than adults,” Plos One, 14(10). e0219336.
[13]  Joseph, B., Raj, J.S., Edwin, B., Sankarganesh, P., Jeevitha, M.V., Ajisha, S.U. and Sheeja, S.R, “Toxic effect of heavy metals on aquatic environment,” International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4. 2011.
[14]  Sall, M.L., Diaw, A.K.D., Gningue-Sall, D. et al, “Toxic heavy metals: impact on the environment and human health, and treatment with conducting organic polymers, a review,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27. 29927-29942. 2020.
[15]  ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, “Toxicological Profile for Lead,” Atlanta, U.S. Department of Health and Humans Services, Public Health Service, Centres for Diseases Control, 2000.
[16]  Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B.B. and Beeregowda, K.N, “Toxicity, mechanism, and health effects of some heavy metals.” Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 7(2). 60-72. 2014.
[17]  Goodwin, F.E. and Ponikvar, A.L, Lead processing. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2013. Available:
[18]  Verma, R. and Dwivedi, P, “Heavy metal water pollution-A case study,” Recent Research in Science and Technology, 5. 98-99. 2013.
[19]  Srivastva, A.K., Rao, R., Suzuki, N., Mishra, D. and Srivastva, S.K, “Effect of lead on plasma electrolytes of a freshwater fish, Heteropneutes fossilis,” International Aquatic Research, 5. 52-58. 2013.
[20]  Senthamilselvan, D., Chezhian, A. and Suresh, E, “Acute toxicity of chromium and mercury to Lates calcarifer under laboratory conditions,” International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 2(4). 54-57. 2015.
[21]  Rani, M.J., John, M.M.C., Uthiralingam, M. and Azhaguraj, R, “Acute toxicity of mercury and chromium to Clarias batrachus (Linn),” Bioresearch Bulletin, 5. 368-372. 2011.
[22]  APHA, “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater,” 23rd edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DC. 2017.
[23]  Reish, D.L. and Oshida, P.S, “Manual of methods in aquatic environment research,” Part 10. Short-term Static Bioassay. FAO Fish. 247. 1-62. 1987.
[24]  Mohapatra, B.C. and Rengarajan, K, “A manual of bioassays in the laboratory and their techniques,” CMFRI, Cochin, India, 75. 1995.
[25]  USEPA, “Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms,” 4th edn, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of water (4303T) 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC. 2002.
[26]  Rand, G.M, Behavior, In Rand, G.M. and Petrocelli, S.R, (ed), Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology methods and applications, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, 1985. 221-256.
[27]  Finney, D.J, “A statistical treatment of the sigmoid response curve,” Probit analysis. (3rd ed). Cambridge University Press, London 333, 1971. [Accessed 2 August 1982].
[28]  Tchounwou, P.B., Yedjou, C.G., Patlolla, A.K. and Sutton, D.J, “Heavy metal toxicity and the environment,” Experientia Supplementum, 101.133-164. 2012.
[29]  Ali, T.H., Ali, A.A. and Ellah, A.A, “Determination of the lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of cadmium chloride in mosquito fish Gambusia holbrooki,” Tikrit Journal of Pure Science, 21(1). 41-44. 2016.
[30]  Authman, M.M.N., Zaki, M.S., Khallaf, E.A. and Abbas, H.H, “Use of fish as bio-indicator of the effects of heavy metals pollution,” Journal of Aquaculture and Development, 6(4). 2015
[31]  Nigar, S. and Gupta, N. Recent advances in aquaculture, In B.N. Pandey, (ed), Heavy metals: Implications associated to fish consumption, Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, India, 2017. 99-107.
[32]  Maurya, P.K., Malik, D.S., Yadav, K.K., Kumar, A., Kumar, S. and Kamyab, H, “Bioaccumulation and potential sources of heavy metal contamination in fish species in river Ganga basin: Possible human health risks evaluation,” Toxicology Reports, 6. 472-481. 2019.
[33]  ILA, International Lead Association, “Lead chemical safety report,” European chemical agency, Lead REACH Consortium. 2015.
[34]  Church, B.G., van Sprang, P.A., Chowdhury, M.J. and DeForest, D.K, “Updated species sensitivity distribution evaluations for acute and chronic lead toxicity to saltwater aquatic life,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 2017.
[35]  Graham, S., and Katherine, S, “The effects of environmental pollutants on complex fish behaviour: Integrating behavioural and physiological indicators of toxicity,” Aquatic Toxicology, 68, 369-92. 2004.
[36]  Kane, A.S., Salierno, J.D. and Brewer, S.K, Fish models in behavioral toxicology: automated techniques, updates and perspectives, In Ostrander, G.K, (ed), Methods in Aquatic Toxicology, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 2005. 559-590.
[37]  Sarma, D., Das, J. and Dutta, A, “Acute toxicity and behavioural changes in Channa punctatus (Bloch) exposed to Rogor (an organophosphorus pesticide),” Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 12(4). 641-644. 2013.
[38]  Sharma, M, “Behavioural responses in effect to chemical stress in fish: A review,” International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 7(1). 01-05. 2019.
[39]  Kumar, M., Kumar, P. and Devi, S, “Toxicity of copper sulphate on behavioural parameter and respiratory surveillance in freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus (Lin.),” Research Journal of Chemical and Environment Sciences, 3(1). 22-28. 2015.
[40]  Selvanathan, J., Kumar, M.S. and Vincent, S, “Determination of median tolerance limit (LC50) of Clarias batrachus for cadmium chloride and mercuric chloride,” Recent Research in Science and Technology, 3(11). 84-86. 2011.
[41]  Syngai, G.G., Dey, S. and Bharali, R, “Evaluation of toxicity levels of the aqueous extract of Allium sativum and its effects on the behavior of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio l., 1758),” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 9(3). 417-421. 2016.
[42]  Yuniari, S., Hertika, A. and Leksono, A, “Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 - 96 hours) Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed cypermethrin-based pesticide,” The Journal of Experimental Life Sciences, 6. 58-62. 2016.
[43]  Mahnaz, S.S. and Sadegh, P, “Evaluation of toxicity and lethal concentration (LC50) of silver and selenium nanoparticle in different life stages of the fish Tenualosa ilish (Hamilton 1822),” Oceanography and Fisheries Journal, 7(5), 555722. 2018.
[44]  Samuel, P., Paul, A., Francis, A., Loveline, O. and Auta, Y.I, “Acute toxicity assessment of lead nitrate on Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822),” International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6(2), 459-462. 2018.
[45]  Shah, S.L. and Ahmet, A, “Effects of heavy metal accumulation on the 96-h LC50 values in tench Tinca tinca L., 1758,” Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29, 139-144. 2005.
[46]  Tiwari, M., Nagpure, N.S., Saksena, D.N., Kumar, R., Singh, S.P., Kushwaha, B. and Lakra, W.S, “Evaluation of acute toxicity levels and ethological responses under heavy metal cadmium exposure in freshwater teleost, Channa punctata (Bloch),” International Journal of Aquatic Science, 36-47. 2011.
[47]  Nisha, J.C., Raja, R., Sekar, J. and Chandran, R, “Acute effect of chromium toxicity on the behavioral response of Zebrafish Danio rerio,” International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 6(2), 6-14. 2016.
[48]  Reddy, P.P., Jagadeshwarlu, R. and Devi, G.S, “Determination of lethal concentration (LC50) of copper to Sarotherodon mossambica,” International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4(1). 172-175. 2016.
[49]  Ullah, A., Rehman, H.U., Saeed, W., Quraish, M.F., Ullah, Z., Rehman, H.R., Awais, S., Raqeebullah, S., Ahmad, W. and Saeed, K, “Determination of 96-hr LC50 value of cadmium for a fish,” Labeo rohita. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 4(5). 380-382. 2016.
[50]  Pandit, D.N., Kumari, R. and Kumari, V, “Factors affecting acute toxicity dose of lead nitrate in certain indian air- breathing fishes,” International Journal of Chemical Science, 15(2). 144-152. 2017.
[51]  Paul, S., Mandal, A., Bhattacharjee, P,. Chakraborty, S., Paul, R. and Mukhopadhyay, B.K, “Evaluation of water quality and toxicity after exposure of lead nitrate in freshwater fish, major source of water pollution,” The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 45(4). 345-351. 2019.
[52]  Al-Balawi, H., Ahmad, Z., Ali, A.A., Fahd, A.M., Suliman, E.M. and Khalid, A. G, “Toxicity bioassay of lead acetate and effects of its sublethal exposure on growth, haematological parameters, and reproduction in Clarias gariepinus,” African Journal of Biotechnology, 10. 11039-11047. 2011.
[53]  Dube, K.V. and Magar, R.S, “Effect of lead nitrate on the haematological parameters of Channa punctatus,” International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 3(1), 1-3. 2013.
[54]  Paul, N. and Sengupta, M, “Lead induced overactivation of phagocytes and variation in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in intestinal macrophages of Channa punctatus,” Modern Research Inflammation, 2(2). 28-35. 2013.
[55]  Rai, R., Mishra, D., Srivastav, S.K., Suzuki, N. and Srivastav, A.K, “Effects of lead nitrate on histo-cytological alterations of corpuscles of stannius of stinging catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis,” Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 7(20). 823-830. 2013.
[56]  Mary, S.C.H., Silvan, S. and Elumalai, E.K, “Toxicology study on lead nitrate induced fresh water fish Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton),” European Journal of Academic Essay, 1(7), 5-8.
[57]  Choubey, M., Choubey, R. and Joy, K. B, “Toxic effects of lead nitrate Pb(NO3)2 on testis in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis,” Pharmacologia, 6(2). 63-72. 2015.
[58]  Dutta, B., Sarma, S.R. and Deka, P, “Lead nitrate toxicity on haematological changes in a live fish species Channa punctatus (Bloch),” International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 3(2). 196-198. 2015.
[59]  Shampa, J. and Batham, D, “Acute toxicity and biochemical studies of lead nitrate on the liver and kidney of fresh water fish Mystus cavasius,” Journal of Global Biosciences, 5(9), 4590-4597. 2016.
[60]  Manjeet, K. and Singh, B.O, “Determination of LC50 of lead nitrate for a fish, Labeo rohita (Hamilton- Buchanan),” International Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 4(8), 23-26. 2015.
[61]  Rajeshkumar, S. and Li, X, “Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish species from the Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, China,” Toxicology Reports, 5, 288-295. 2018.
[62]  Bawuro, A.A., Voegborio, B. and Adimado, A, “Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in some tissues of fish in Lake Geriyo, Adamawa State, Nigeria,” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 1854892. 2018.
[63]  Krewski, D., Acosta, D., Andersen, M., Anderson, H., Bailar, J.C., Boekelheide, K., Brent, R., Charnley, G., Cheung, V.G. et al, “Toxicity testing in the 21st century: A vision and a strategy,” Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 13(2-4). 51-138. 2010.
[64]  Paul, N., Chakraborty, S. and Sengupta, M, “Lead toxicity on non-specific immune mechanisms of freshwater fish Channa punctatus,” Aquatic Toxicology, 152. 105-112. 2014.