Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
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Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(6), 613-625
DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-6-6
Open AccessReview Article

Wheat-Paddy Straw Biochar: An Ecological Solution of Stubble Burning in the Agroecosystems of Punjab and Haryana Region, India, A Synthesis

Diksha Tokas1, Siril Singh1, 2, Rajni Yadav1, Pardeep Kumar1, Sheenu Sharma1 and Anand Narain Singh1,

1Soil Ecosystem and Restoration Ecology Lab, Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India

2Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University Chandigarh-160014

Pub. Date: June 25, 2021

Cite this paper:
Diksha Tokas, Siril Singh, Rajni Yadav, Pardeep Kumar, Sheenu Sharma and Anand Narain Singh. Wheat-Paddy Straw Biochar: An Ecological Solution of Stubble Burning in the Agroecosystems of Punjab and Haryana Region, India, A Synthesis. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021; 9(6):613-625. doi: 10.12691/aees-9-6-6


The Rice-Wheat cropping system (RWS) is the predominant agricultural system in northern India, especially in Punjab and Haryana. About 90% of agricultural land in Punjab and Haryana is indulged in the intensive RWS cropping system. The major constraint in this system is the short time interval between rice harvesting and the sowing of wheat. The preparation of the field for the wheat crop requires the removal of stubble, and farmers burn the stubble to get rid of it as there is a lack of any other proper management strategy or alternative use of stubble. Stubble burning is a significant source of pollutants causing severe damage to human health and the environment. The appropriate stubble management could provide immense economic benefits to the farmers and guard the environment against pollution. There is a dire need for alternative solutions to stubble burning. Some alternative management practices include the direct incorporation of the stubble into the soil, stubble as fuel, raw material for pulp and paper industries, or biomass for biofuel production. Since biochar is an effective tool for the utilization of stubble into a carbon-rich source, it can further be utilized in the agroecosystems because of its potential to improve soil fertility, enhance soil carbon, and reduce fertilizer use efficiency and enhance agricultural productivity. Thus, biochar, with its immense benefits, helps in soil conditioning and is an excellent means of carbon stabilization. The stable aromatic structure of carbon is resistant to chemical processes such as oxidation to CO2 or reduction to methane, making it a suitable means to act as a long-term carbon sink. We infer that biochar as an eco-friendly answer for this issue is an exceptionally viable soil conditioner that directly influences soil carbon, soil quality, crop production and food security, promoting economic and ecological benefits.

biochar stubble burning carbon stabilization agroecosystem

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