Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/aees Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(2), 156-166
DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-2-6
Open AccessArticle

Socio-economic Impacts of Wastewater Irrigation on Local People in the Outskirts of Chandigarh Urban Areas

Siril Singh1, 2, Rajni Yadav2, Amandeep Kaur2 and A. N. Singh2,

1Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

2Soil Ecosystem and Restoration Ecology Lab, Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Pub. Date: January 12, 2021

Cite this paper:
Siril Singh, Rajni Yadav, Amandeep Kaur and A. N. Singh. Socio-economic Impacts of Wastewater Irrigation on Local People in the Outskirts of Chandigarh Urban Areas. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021; 9(2):156-166. doi: 10.12691/aees-9-2-6

Abstract

The use of wastewater for irrigation is a valuable strategy to maximize available water resources, but the fringe quality of the water can present innumerable challenges. Water scarcity pushes the farmers to use wastewater for irrigation as an available alternate source. The present study was conducted in the peri-urban areas of well-planned city Chandigarh with a primary objective to obtain information about the current status of wastewater use for irrigation and socio-economic reasons for using wastewater from the farmers¡¯ perspective. Therefore, nineteen (19) villages were selected nearby four seasonal choes around the study sites. At the site, we found that 64% of farmers were using freshwater, and the remaining farmers were using wastewater for crop irrigation. In this study, two contrasting perceptions were observed among the farmers about wastewater irrigation. Results indicated that farmers have a piece of relatively good knowledge about the inappropriate quality of wastewater and its adverse effects. Although they were concerned about the health, environmental and social impacts of wastewater yet, they believed that using this water resource is economically profitable for them. Thus, the present study highlighted the need for planning to improve wastewater treatment along with appropriate policies and methods to enhance farmers¡¯ commitment to environmental conservation and human health.

Keywords:
wastewater irrigation agriculture farmer¡¯s perception environmental impact health risk sustainability

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Roson, R. Damania, R. "The macroeconomic impact of future water scarcity: An assessment of alternative scenarios". Journal of Policy Modeling, 39: 1141-62, 2017.
 
[2]  Murtaza, G., Ghafoor, A., Qadir, M., Owens, G., Aziz, M.A., Zia M.H. and Saifullah. "Disposal and Use of Sewage on Agricultural Lands in Pakistan: A Review". Pedosphere, 20(1): 23-34, 2010.
 
[3]  Zafar, A. and Akhtar, S. "Farmers perception about social impact and Constraints in wastewater irrigation". Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 40: 3-4, 2003.
 
[4]  Mukherjee, V., Das, A., Akhand, A. and Gupta, G. "Toxicity and profitability of rice cultivation under wastewater irrigation: the case of the East Calcutta Wetlands". Ecological Economics, 93: 292-300, 2013.
 
[5]  Liang, Q., Gao, R., Xi, B., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, H. "Long-term effects of irrigation using water from the river receiving treated industrial wastewater on soil organic carbon fractions and enzyme activities". Agricultural Water Management, 135: 100-108, 2014.
 
[6]  Henze, M., Harremoes, P., Jansen, J.L.C. and Arvin, E. Wastewater Treatment: Biological and Chemical Processes (3rd ed.) Springer. Berlin. 2002.
 
[7]  Martin, S. and Griswold, W. "Human health effects of heavy metals". Environmental science and technology briefs for citizens. 15: 1-6, 230, 2009.
 
[8]  Sharma, A. K., Tjell, J. C., Sloth, J. J. and Holm, P. E. "Review of arsenic contamination, exposure through water and food and low-cost mitigation options for rural areas". Applied Geochemistry, 41: 11-33, 2014.
 
[9]  Huibers, F. P. and Van Lier, J. B. "Use of wastewater in agriculture: the water chain approach". Irrigation and Drainage, 54(1): 3-9, 2005.
 
[10]  Menegaki,, A. N., Hanley, N. and Tsagarakis, K. P. "The social acceptability and valuation of recycled water in Crete: A study of consumers' and farmers' attitudes". Ecological Economics, 62(1): 7-18, 2007.
 
[11]  Rutkowski, T., Raschid-Sally, L. and Buechler, S. "Wastewater irrigation in the developing world¡ªTwo case studies from the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal". Agricultural Water Management, 88(1-3): 83-91, 2007.
 
[12]  Daniel. W.W. Biostatistics: a foundation for analysis in the health sciences. 7th edition, Wiley, New York, 20(2): 324-326, 1999.
 
[13]  Raja, S., Cheema, H. M. N., Babar, S., Khan, A. A., Murtaza, G. and Aslam, U. "Socio-economic background of wastewater irrigation and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in crops and vegetables". Agricultural Water Management, 158: 26-34, 2015.
 
[14]  Maleksaeidi, H., Ranjbar, S., Eskandari, F., Jalali, M. and Keshavarz, M. "Vegetable farmers' knowledge, attitude and drivers regarding untreated wastewater irrigation in developing countries: A case study in Iran". Journal of Cleaner Production, 202: 863-870, 2018.
 
[15]  Ensink, J.H., Mahmood, T., van der Hoek, W., Raschid-Sally, L. and Amerasinghe, F.P. "A nationwide assessment of waste water use in Pakistan: an obscure activity or a vitally important one?". Water Policy, 6: 197-206, 2004.
 
[16]  Mojid, M. A., Wyseure, G. C. L., Biswas, S. K. and Hossain, A. B. M. Z. "Farmers' perceptions and knowledge in using wastewater for irrigation at twelve peri-urban areas and two sugar mill areas in Bangladesh". Agricultural Water Management, 98(1), 79-86, 2010.
 
[17]  Khanpae, M., Karami, E., Maleksaeidi, H. and Keshavarz, M. "Farmers' attitude towards using treated wastewater for irrigation: The question of sustainability". Journal of Cleaner Production, 243, 118541, 2020.
 
[18]  Sheidaeia, F., Karami, E. and Keshavarz, M. "Farmers' attitude towards wastewater use in Fars Province, Iran". Water Policy, 18(2), 355-367, 2016.
 
[19]  Maldonado, V., Rubio Arias, H., Quintana, R., Saucedo, R., Gutierrez, M., Ortega, J. and Nevarez, G. "Heavy Metal Content in Soils under Different Wastewater Irrigation Patterns in Chihuahua, Mexico". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 5(5): 441-449, 2008.
 
[20]  Carr, G., Potter, R. B. and Nortcliff, S. "Water reuse for irrigation in Jordan: Perceptions of water quality among farmers". Agricultural Water Management, 98(5): 847-854, 2011.
 
[21]  Mayilla, W., Keraita, B., Ngowi, H., Konradsen, F. and Magayane, F. "Perceptions of using low-quality irrigation water in vegetable production in Morogoro, Tanzania". Environment Development and Sustainability, 19: 165-183. 2011.
 
[22]  Qishlaqi, A., Moore, F. and Forghani, G. "Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soils and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran". Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 141(1-3): 257-273. 2008.
 
[23]  Available: http://chandigarh.gov.in/dept_agri.htm.
 
[24]  Tomas, J., Arvay, J. and Toth, T. "Heavy Metals in Productive Parts of Agricultural Plants" in 7th International Scientific conference on Biotechnology and Quality of Raw Materials and Foodstuffs, Manor House Mojm¨ªrovce, Slovakia, (1): 819-827. 2012.
 
[25]  Raschid-Sally, L. and Jayakody, P. International Water Management Institute. Drivers and characteristics of wastewater agriculture in developing countries: results from a global assessment. [International Water Management Institute]. 2009.
 
[26]  Drechsel, P. Wastewater irrigation and health: assessing and mitigating risk in low-income countries. Earthscan, 2010.
 
[27]  Amiri, S. S., Maralian, H. and Aghabarati, A. "Heavy metal accumulation in Melilotus officinalis under crown Olea europaea L forest irrigated with wastewater". African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(21): 3912-3916. 2008.
 
[28]  Kibria, M., Islam, M. and Alamgir, M. "Influence of waste water irrigation on heavy metal accumulation in soil and plant". International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences, 1: 43-54, 2012.
 
[29]  Fatta-Kassinos, D., Kalavrouziotis, I. K., Koukoulakis, P. H. and Vasquez, M. I. "The risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment", Science of The Total Environment, 409(19): 3555-3563, 2011.