Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/aees Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
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Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020, 8(6), 428-440
DOI: 10.12691/aees-8-6-15
Open AccessArticle

Mapping the Geographical Distribution and Seasonal Variation of Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) in the Epidemic Hotspot Regions of India: A Step towards the Vector Control and Sustainable Health

M. Palaniyandi1, , T. Sharmila2, P. Manivel2, P Thirumalai2 and PH Anand2

1ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Indira Nagar, Pondicherry-605006, India

2Department of Geography, Government Arts and Science College, Kumbakonam (Autonomous), (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tamil Nadu, India

Pub. Date: September 27, 2020

Cite this paper:
M. Palaniyandi, T. Sharmila, P. Manivel, P Thirumalai and PH Anand. Mapping the Geographical Distribution and Seasonal Variation of Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) in the Epidemic Hotspot Regions of India: A Step towards the Vector Control and Sustainable Health. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020; 8(6):428-440. doi: 10.12691/aees-8-6-15

Abstract

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are known vector mosquitoes for several emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) including dengue fever, chikungunya, Zika fever, Mayaro and yellow fever viruses across the world. Aedes species vector mosquitoes are blamed for the spread of dengue and chikungunya in India. Dengue and Chikungunya is the illustrious public health problems in the country, dengue has public health importance and cumulative burden to the affected community, especially in the Southern States of India, since 1991, and followed by the highest outbreaks of chikungunya in the Southern India, 2006. Dengue cases reported from 24 States and 3 Union Territories out of 34 States / Union Territories in India, and highest reports recorded in 5 major States (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Punjab and West Bengal), during 2017. All the four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4) are detected across the country various with space and time. Mapping the geographical distribution and seasonal variation of dengue and chikungunya vector mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) is absolutely significant for the systematic surveillance, organization, and implementation, accordingly, the public health authority possibly will make prevention measures to control the dengue epidemic earlier in advance and monitoring the endemic situation in the state as well as in the country, continuously [16,17,18]. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vector mosquito’s density caused by the man-made containers (socio-economic variables), and the natural breeding habitats, and land use / land cover types, environmental risk factors, and climate determinants. All the four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4) are reported in India. The study has mainly focused on the major endemic districts in India, where the state of endemic has accumulative problems, and is grumbling the community. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the known vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya. The endemic districts have unique landscape terrain and land use / land cover pattern, and climate factors (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and saturation deficiency). The major landscape terrain has hilly, plain and coastal areas. The epidemic areas receive rainfall by both the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon from April to November (almost 8 months), and has the average temperature range of 22°C to 31°C, and relative humidity of 70 % to 90 %, and the present study contains the vector density is highly influenced by the maximum number of rainy days, and the occurrences of dengue epidemics clustered regions in India mainly where it receives annual mean rainfall ranging from 300 mm to 1200 mm. The spatial distribution and seasonal variation of vector mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) in the identified endemic districts are absolutely griping the situation by seasonal variation in precipitation and temperature, land cover spatial variations, socio-economic, and ecological differences have directly affected the profusion of vector mosquitoes and the incubation period of the dengue and chikungunya virus, and thus, huge epidemics in the identified endemic districts along with entire state. Consequently, the nature and manmade environment is fuelling for the huge number of profusion of Aedes species mosquitoes in the epidemics area. Mapping the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, using Remote Sensing, and GIS technology could be an ultimate tool for functioning a dengue surveillance in the endemic districts as well as in the country, and thus, comfort to the public health experts to organize, implement and choose an appropriate control strategy for the prevention measures to control the grumpy situation in the dengue endemic hot spot regions in the country.

Keywords:
mapping vector ecology Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus dengue and chikungunya vector dengue control strategy environmental determinants climate parameters land use/land cover socio-economic factors remote sensing and GIS

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