Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/aees Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
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Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020, 8(5), 244-253
DOI: 10.12691/aees-8-5-9
Open AccessArticle

Spatial Variations of Heavy Metal Content in the Surface Water of Yamuna River, India

Anita Singh1, Sudesh Chaudhary1, and Brijnandan S. Dehiya2, 3

1Centre of Excellence for Energy and Environmental Studies, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Haryana - 131039, India

2Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Haryana - 131039, India

3Department of Chemical Engineering, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science and Technology, Murthal, Haryana - 131039, India

Pub. Date: July 06, 2020

Cite this paper:
Anita Singh, Sudesh Chaudhary and Brijnandan S. Dehiya. Spatial Variations of Heavy Metal Content in the Surface Water of Yamuna River, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2020; 8(5):244-253. doi: 10.12691/aees-8-5-9

Abstract

Fast-growing urbanization, industrialization, and encroachment of the river banks have increased the pollution load in the rivers. The concentrations of heavy metals like Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Magnesium (Mn), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn) in the waters of river Yamuna were studied. Sampling was done at 41 sites from upstream in the mountainous region to confluence point with River Ganga near the city of Prayagraj. It was found that the samples from the upstream sites in the mountainous region (falling in the state of Himachal Pradesh) were less polluted than those of Delhi stretch of the river suggesting huge influence of the anthropogenic activities along the Delhi stretch of the river. Fe, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd and Mn concentration surpassed the prescribed maximum permissible limits for drinking water all along the river, while Cr, and Zn concentration remained within the permissible limit throughout. The peak concentration of Fe, Ni, Mn and Cd were recorded along Delhi stretch and downstream from Delhi suggesting contributions from the industrial effluents of various industries such as nut-bolt industry, electroplating, and Galvanizing and cycle industries in the region. The status of various heavy metals in the water of the Yamuna River has been discussed in the present study with respect to the heavy metal pollution index (HPI). HPI for Yamuna water was found highest along the Delhi-stretch. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sampled water of Yamuna followed the order as stated here Fe>Zn>Cu>Ni>Mn>Pb>Cr>Cd in water.

Keywords:
Heavy Yamuna River heavy metals water contamination HPI

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