Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/aees Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2013, 1(6), 133-142
DOI: 10.12691/aees-1-6-6
Open AccessArticle

Complex Regulation of Chenopodium album Seed Germination

Lindsey M. Altenhofen1 and Jack Dekker1,

1Weed Biology Laboratory, Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

Pub. Date: December 15, 2013

Cite this paper:
Lindsey M. Altenhofen and Jack Dekker. Complex Regulation of Chenopodium album Seed Germination. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2013; 1(6):133-142. doi: 10.12691/aees-1-6-6

Abstract

Chenopodium album is a common, widespread and troublesome weed in agricultural areas throughout the north temperate regions of the world. A primary reason for this flexible adaptation relies on the complex regulation of seed germination and recruitment. The control of seed germination bythe interaction of light, temperature, after-ripening time, nitrate, and water level was investigated in a factorial experiment under controlled environmental conditions. Stimulation of germination was evaluated in two populations of C. albumseeds collected in 2007 and 2008 at a common Iowa, USA location.Germination of both populations was generally stimulated by light, warm (15-25°C) and hot (25-35°C) temperatures, 0.01 M nitrate, 3 to 5 weeks of after-ripening (4°C, dark, moist), and with the 2008 population, 1.0 and 1.25 ml of water. The interaction of these factors, particularly light, warm temperatures and nitrate, stimulated higher germination than when applied individually. Germination was very lowin cold (5-15°C) temperatures or darkness, regardless of other treatments applied. The goal of this experiment was to lay a foundation with two local Iowa populations to guide further studies developing a seed germination assay to determine variability of dormancy among individual seeds of and between populations. Insights about dormancy variability in C. album gained from the current research included positive responses by both populations to light, warm and hot temperatures, nitrate, and intermediate after-ripening times. However, the populations differed in their response to water quantity and, for most conditions, the 2008 population achieved greater overall germination. The overarching goal of this project is to build a condensed C. album seed germination assay to characterize individual populations to predict seedling emergence patterns in agricultural soils in an effort to decrease interference with crop productivity.

Keywords:
seed dormancy seed germination seedling recruitment seedling emergence common lambsquarters

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 5

References:

[1]  Baskin, J. M., and C. C. Baskin. 1977. Role of temperature in the germination ecology of threesummer annual weeds. Oecologia. 30:377-382.
 
[2]  Baskin, J. M. and C. C. Baskin. 1987. Temperature requirements for after-ripening in buried seeds of four summer annual weeds. Weed Res. 27:385-389.
 
[3]  Bouwmeester, H. J., and C. M. Karssen. 1989. Environmental factors influencing the expression of dormancy patterns in weed seeds. Ann. Bot. 63:113-120.
 
[4]  Bouwmeester, H. J., and C. M. Karssen. 1993. Seasonal periodicity in germination of seeds of Chenopodium album L. Ann. Bot. 72:463-473.
 
[5]  Chu, C. C., R. D. Sweet, and J. L. Ozbun. 1978. Some germination characteristics in common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album). Weed Sci. 26:255-258.
 
[6]  Crocker, W. 1906. Role of seed coats in delayed germination. Contributions from the Hull Botanical Laboratory. LXXXV. Bot. Gaz. 42:265-291.
 
[7]  Cumming, B. G. 1959. Extreme sensitivity of germination and photoperiodic reaction in the genus Chenopodium (tourn.) L. Nature. 184:1044-1045.
 
[8]  Cumming, B. G. 1963. The dependence of germination on photoperiod, light quality, and temperature, in Chenopodium spp. Can. J. Bot. 41:1211-1233.
 
[9]  Dekker, J. and M. Hargrove. 2002. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp.: V. Effects of gaseousenvironment on giant foxtail (Setaria faberii R. Hermm.) (Poaceae) seed germination. Am. J. Bot. 89:410-416.
 
[10]  Delorit, R. J. 1970. An illustrated taxonomy manual of weed seeds. Agronomy Publications, River Falls, Wisconsin. p 76.
 
[11]  Fawcett, R. S. and F. W. Slife. 1978. Effects of field applications of nitrate on weed seed germination and dormancy. Weed Sci. 26:594-596.
 
[12]  Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, New York. p 274.
 
[13]  Harvey, S. J. and F. Forcella. 1993. Vernal seedling emergence model for common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album). Weed Sci. 41:309-316.
 
[14]  Henson, I. E. 1970. The effects of light, potassium nitrate, and temperature on the germination of Chenopodium album L. Weed Res. 10:27-39.
 
[15]  Holmes, M. G. and H. Smith. 1977 a. The function of phytochrome in the natural environment. I. Characterization of daylight for studies in photomorphogenesis and photoperiodism. Photochem. Photobiol. 25:533-538.
 
[16]  Holmes, M. G. and H. Smith. 1977 b. The function of phytochrome in the natural environment. II. The influence of vegetation canopies on the spectral energy distribution of natural daylight. Photochem. Photobiol. 25:539-545.
 
[17]  Holmes, M. G. and H. Smith. 1977 c. The function of phytochrome in the natural environment. IV. Light quality and plant development. Photochem. Photobiol. 25:551-557.
 
[18]  Jursik, M., J. Soukup, V. Venclova, and J. Holec. 2003. Seed dormancy and germination of Shaggy soldier (Galinsoga ciliataBlake.) and Common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L.). Plant Soil Environ. 49:511-518.
 
[19]  Karssen, C. M. 1967. The light promoted germination of the seeds of Chenopodium album L. I. Theinfluence of the incubation time on quantity and rate of the response to red light. Acta Bot. Neerl. 16:156-160.
 
[20]  Karssen, C. M. 1968. The light promoted germination of the seeds of Chenopodium album L. II. Effects of (RS)-Abscisic acid. Acta Bot. Neerl. 17:293-308.
 
[21]  Karssen, C. M. 1970. The light promoted germination of the seeds of Chenopodium album L. V. Dark reactions regulating quantity and rate of the response to red light. Acta Bot. Neerl. 19:187-196.
 
[22]  Moravcova, L. and J. Dostalek. 1989. Contribution to the biology of germination of four species of Chenopodium album agg. Under different conditions. Folia Geobot. Phytotx. 24:431-439.
 
[23]  Morgan, D. C. and H. Smith. 1978. The relationship between phytochrome photoequilibrium and development in light grown Chenopodium album L. Planta. 142:187-193
 
[24]  Morgan, D. C. and H. Smith. 1979. A systematic relationship between phytochrome-controlled development and species habitat, for plant grown in simulated natural radiation. Planta. 145:253-258.
 
[25]  Morgan, D. C. and H. Smith. 1981. Control of development in Chenopodium album L. byshadelight: the effect of light quantity (total fluence rate) and light quality (red:far-red ratio). New Phytol. 88:239-248.
 
[26]  Murdoch, A. J., E. H. Roberts, and C. O. Goedert. 1989. A model for germination responses to alternating temperatures. Ann. Bot. 63:97-111.
 
[27]  Roberts, E. H. and S. K. Benjamin. 1979. The interaction of light, nitrate and alternating temperatures on the germination of Chenopodium album, Capsella bersa-pastoris and Poa annuabefore and after chilling. Seed Sci. Technol. 7:379-392.
 
[28]  Saini, H. S., P. K. Bassi, and M. S. Spencer. 1985 a. Seed germination in Chenopodium album L.: Relationships between nitrate and the effects of plant hormones. Plant Physiol. 77:940-943.
 
[29]  Saini, H. S., P. K. Bassi, and M. S. Spencer. 1985b. Seed germination in Chenopodium album L.: Further evidence for the dependence of the effects of growth regulators on nitrate availability. Plant Cell Environ. 8:707-711.
 
[30]  Saini, H. S., P. K. Bassi, and M. S. Spencer. 1986. Use of ethylene and nitrate to break seeddormancy of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album). Weed Sci. 34:502-506.
 
[31]  Smith, H. 2000. Phytochromes and light signal perception by plants - an emerging synthesis. Nature. 407:585-591.
 
[32]  Smith, H. and G. C. Whitelam. 1997. The shade avoidance syndrome: multiple responses mediated by multiple phytochromes. Plant Cell Environ. 30:840-844.
 
[33]  Smith, H., J. J. Casal, and G. M. Jackson. 1990. Reflection signals and the perception by phytochrome of the proximity of neighboring vegetation. Plant Cell Environ. 13:73-78.
 
[34]  Vincent, E. M. and E. H. Roberts. 1977. The Interaction of light, nitrate and alternating temperatures in promoting the germination of dormant seeds of common weed species. Seed Sci. Technol. 5:659 670.
 
[35]  Wentland, M. J. 1965. Effects of photoperiod on the seed dormancy of Chenopodium album. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin.
 
[36]  Wiese, A. M. and L. K. Binning. 1987. Calculating the threshold temperature of development for weeds. Weed Sci. 35:177-179.
 
[37]  Williams, J. T. 1963. Biological flora of the British Isles: Chenopodium album L. J. Ecol. 51:711-725.
 
[38]  Williams, J. T. and J. L. Harper. 1965. Seed polymorphism and germination I. The influence of nitrates and low temperature on the germination of Chenopodium album. Weed Res. 5:141-150.
 
[39]  Williams, J. T. 1962. Studies on the biology of weeds with special reference to the genus Chenopodium L. Ph. D. thesis, University of Wales.