Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
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Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019, 7(2), 74-84
DOI: 10.12691/aees-7-2-5
Open AccessArticle

Physico-chemical and Biological Characterization of Groundwater: A Case Study of Auraiya District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Yogesh Kumar1, Deepak Singh2, and Usha Mina2

1Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

2School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Pub. Date: March 29, 2019

Cite this paper:
Yogesh Kumar, Deepak Singh and Usha Mina. Physico-chemical and Biological Characterization of Groundwater: A Case Study of Auraiya District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019; 7(2):74-84. doi: 10.12691/aees-7-2-5


Groundwater is an important resource which is extensively used for agriculture, drinking, industrial and commercial purposes. Contamination and overexploitation of it may lead to the exhaustion of this vital resource. To assess the physico-chemical and biological characteristics for groundwater quality, five villages of the Auraiya District (Uttar Pradesh) India were selected from where the groundwater samples were collected during the period of January, 2015 to December, 2016. For each site and each season samples were collected in replicates. The pH at all the locations is mostly alkaline ranging between 7.2 - 8.1 which is well within the prescribed standard limits. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) are ranging between 578 to 819 mg/l. Electrical Conductivity of the collected water samples, ranging from 903.3 - 1796.7 μS/cm. The value of BOD and COD were found to be ranging from 3-8.0 and 64-320 mg/l, respectively. Ratio of BOD:COD indicate that the groundwater quality is not polluted. The total coliforms are also negligible having values below the 2.0 MPN/100 mL at all the five locations indicating thereby that there is no bacteriological contamination of the groundwater. The water samples were also analysed to know the concentration of five heavy metals viz., Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Cr. The Cd and Cr were not detected in the samples while Fe, Cu, Zn levels were found to be within the prescribed standard limits given for drinking water. Results of the present study indicates that the quality of groundwater available in the bore wells and tube wells are suitable for drinking and domestic purposes as per the standards and which shows that the water quality is not affected by changes in the land use as well as industrial activities occurring in Auraiya district.

groundwater physico-chemical-biological characteristics heavy metals total coliforms BOD:COD ratio

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