Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2328-3912 ISSN (Online): 2328-3920 Website: Editor-in-chief: Alejandro González Medina
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Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019, 7(1), 28-34
DOI: 10.12691/aees-7-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Rural Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Small-scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands at Different Temperatures

Stanislaus Tombe Venusto Lako1, Xiwu Lu1, , John Leju Celestino Ladu1, 2, Ittehad Hussain1 and Javid Hussain3

1School of Energy and Environment, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, PR China

2College of Natural Resources and Environmental studies, Department of Environmental Studies, University of Juba / South Sudan

3Department of Environmental Science, Balochinstan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management Science, Quetta, Pakistan

Pub. Date: January 20, 2019

Cite this paper:
Stanislaus Tombe Venusto Lako, Xiwu Lu, John Leju Celestino Ladu, Ittehad Hussain and Javid Hussain. Rural Domestic Wastewater Treatment by Small-scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands at Different Temperatures. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2019; 7(1):28-34. doi: 10.12691/aees-7-1-4


This study assessed the performance of a small-scale horizontal sub-surface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CWs) for rural domestic wastewater treatment with different species of vegetative plants capsicum annuum (A), Allium sativum (B), Apium graveolens (C), Spinacia oleracea (X), Apium graveolens (Y) & cilantro (Z).The system operational time was over three months as a tertiary treatment for both summer and winter season to improve the effluent quality before disposal. The average temperatures during the experimental operation were 27°C and 11.6°C in summer and winter respectively. The average pH value ranges between 6.98-7.19 and 6.72-6.98 respectively. The average hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2 and three days with the hydraulic loading rate (HLR) set to 180ml/min in summer and winter respectively. The average removal efficiency (RE) concentrations for plants A, B & C in summer were 77.2%, 77.2%, 81.4% & 93% for TN, NO3-N, NH4+N & TP. Whereas in the winter season the RE were 67.6%, 65%, 69.4% & 86.6% for TN, NO3-N, NH4+N & TP for plants X,Y,& Z respectively. All the vegetative plants almost performed similarly in nutrient removal under HRT of two and three days with the best performance revealed in summer. HSSF-CW successfully achieved high removal efficiency due to its self-adaptability, low-cost, secure operations and maintenance and above all is high effluent quality reuses and self-remediation. HSSF-CW is a good alternative for wastewater treatment system.

rural wastewater HSSF-CWs nutrient hydraulic loading rate HRT

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